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Place-making and Prosperous Cities

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On 22 September City of Trees hosted a free seminar which aimed to inform and inspire attendees to think about innovative urban greening initiatives in our cities and towns.

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Place-making and Prosperous Cities

  1. 1. Thursday 22 September Manchester City Football Academy The Essential role of trees and green infrastructure (GI) Supported by:
  2. 2. Steve Connor, CEO of Creative Concern Welcome by the Chair Join in the conversation! Tweet #CoTseminar @cityoftrees
  3. 3. City of Trees is an innovative and exciting movement set to re-invigorate Greater Manchester’s landscape by transforming underused, unloved woodland and planting a tree for every man, woman and child who lives there, within a generation. City of Trees – who are we? We plan to plant 3m trees over the next generation
  4. 4. City of Trees – what have we achieved so far?
  5. 5. At it’s heart City of Trees is a movement and in order to realise our vision and ambitious goals we need companies, organisations, community groups and public sector bodies from across Greater Manchester to come together. City of Trees – you can be part of it
  6. 6. Dr Kathy Wolf, University of Washington Trees and Nearby Nature: Essential for place- making and vital for prosperous cities Keynote speaker
  7. 7. Trees & Nearby Nature: essential for place-making and vital, prosperous cities Kathleen Wolf, Ph.D. Research Social Scientist University of Washington (Seattle) School of Environmental and Forest Sciences Place Making and Prosperous Cities Seminar Manchester City Training Academy 22 September 2016
  8. 8. Landscape Community Garden credit: American Planning Association
  9. 9. Trees as Place-Makers
  10. 10. urban forestry and urban greening ‘metro nature’ economic values to communities property values
  11. 11. Forest/Resource Economics 101
  12. 12. Economic Value of Metro Nature Methods Challenges Forest Products = market goods excludable identifiable ownership expenses-revenues = profits Trees/Green in Cities = public goods non-excludable multiple “owners” expenses-returns? -profits?
  13. 13. Yard & Street Trees Value Increase Condition 2% mature yard trees (greater than 9-inch dbh) 3% larger street trees (up to 100’ away) 3-5% trees in front yard landscaping 6-9% good tree cover in a neighborhood 10-15% mature trees in high-income neighborhoods multiple studies: Green Cities: Good Health > Local Economics
  14. 14. Parks & Open Space proximate principle (John Crompton, Texas A&M) Value Increase Condition 10% inner city home located within 1/4 mile of a park 17% home near cleaned-up vacant lot 20% home adjacent to or fronting a passive park area 32% residential development adjacent to greenbelts
  15. 15. Local Government Benefits Civic Investment – Public Goods like schools, emergency response, roads  street trees average positive effect on house values  added up across Portland, Oregon  yields a total value of $1.35 billion  potentially increasing annual property tax revenues $15.3 million Donovan & Butry. 2010. Landscape and Urban Planning
  16. 16. urban forestry and urban greening ‘metro nature’ economic values to communities retail centers
  17. 17. Trees & Retail Environments Research Wolf, K.L. 2005. Business District Streetscapes, Trees, and Consumer Response. Journal of Forestry 103, 8: 396-400.
  18. 18. • Research Questions • trees and visual quality? trees and consumer behavior? trees and product pricing? • Methods: mail out/in surveys national or local sample residents/nearby city residents partners: U of Washington, NGOs, business organizations funded by USDA Forest Service Trees & Shopper Environments Research
  19. 19. Image Categories (sorted by ratings) Full Canopy mean 3.63 Pocket Parks mean 3.72 (highest) Scale : 1=not at all, 5=like very much, 26 images
  20. 20. Intermittent Trees 2.78 Enclosed Sidewalk 3.32
  21. 21. No Trees mean 1.65 (lowest) (high - 3.72)
  22. 22. Place Marketing Relationship Marketing3. Product Pricing • higher willingness to pay for all types of goods • higher in districts with trees – 9-12% 1. Place Perceptions • Place Character • Interaction with Merchants • Quality of Products 2. Patronage Behavior • travel time, travel distance • duration & frequency of visits • willingness to pay for parking
  23. 23. social science of consumer behavior ‘atmospherics’
  24. 24. retail & place marketing “Companies stage an experience when they engage customers in a memorable way.”
  25. 25. summary urban forests = human habitat studies of trees in business districts perception, preference & behavior design & place messaging/identity customer relationships
  26. 26. urban forestry and urban greening ‘metro nature’ economic values to communities human health & wellness
  27. 27. WHO health definition a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (1946) science & evidence re: environment role of ‘metro nature’? not a panacea, but important!
  28. 28. Determinants of Health
  29. 29. evidence about human wellness & ‘nearby nature’
  30. 30. Green Cities: Good Health Sponsors: USDA Forest Service, U&CF Program University of Washington NGO partners thanks! to U of WA students: Katrina Flora Mary Ann Rozance Sarah Krueger research review & summaries
  31. 31. 32 urban nature & health benefits across the life cycle
  32. 32. 33 Urban Forests and Newborns the urban natural environment and pregnancy outcomes . . . 10% increase in tree-canopy cover within 50m of a house = lower number of low weight births (1.42 per 1000 births) Donovan et al., Health & Place, 2011; similar studies in Lithuania, Vancouver B.C., Munich, Tel Aviv Israel, Spain
  33. 33. 34 America’s State of Mind, Medco Health Solutions, Inc Change in % Population on ADHD Treatments 2001 - 2010
  34. 34. 35 ADHD and nature contact  96 children aged 7-12 diagnosed ADD or ADHD  Parents gave postactivity attentional functioning ratings (PAAF) – 4 measures:  Can’t stay focused on unappealing tasks (homework or chores)  Can’t complete tasks  Can’t listen and follow directions  Easily distracted Faber Taylor. 2001. Environment & Behavior
  35. 35. 36 Trees & Crime Reduction  trees in the public right of way are associated with lower crime rates  smaller, view obstructing trees are associated with increased crime  larger trees are associated with reduced crime Donovan & Prestemon. 2012. Environment and Behavior
  36. 36. 10% increase in tree canopy ~ 12% decrease in crime Troy, et al. 2011. The relationship between tree canopy and crime rates across an urban–rural gradient in the greater Baltimore region. Landscape and Urban Planning
  37. 37. Improving Depression 20 adults with major depression walk in a park setting and an urban setting  50-minute walks one week apart  before-after testing:  Mood: Positive and Negative Affect (PANAS)  Cognition: Backward Digit Span (BDS) Berman et al. 2012. Journal of Affective Disorders cognitive and affective improvements after walking in a nature setting
  38. 38. • Shorter stays • Less pain • Fewer minor complications • Better emotional well-being Effects of nature window view on recovery from surgery (Roger Ulrich, 1984)
  39. 39. Massachusetts General Hospital credit: Frank Oudeman
  40. 40. • What are the benefits? • Who experiences nature and gets benefits? • What is the green condition or situation that provides benefits? • Scale of value question (i.e., community, province/state, nation) • What are the costs/income gained/lost associated with these benefits? Economic Valuation of Health Outcomes
  41. 41. Potential Annual Cost Savings and Increased Income Associated with Human Health and Well-being Benefits Derived from Metro Nature Millions of U.S. Dollars (2012) Wolf, K.L., M.K. Measells, S.C. Grado, A.S.T. Robbins. 2015. Economic values of metro nature health benefits: A life course approach. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening.
  42. 42. Conclusions • Nearby trees & nature in cities & towns is essential! • Economic benefits – property value & retail behavior • Nature supports disease prevention & health promotion for people of all ages • Evidence? Green Cities: Good Health • Many more studies underway . . . . .
  43. 43.
  44. 44. Stephen O’Malley, Director, Civil Engineers Green Infrastructure & The movement of people and water Speaker
  45. 45. Question time ? ? ? ? ? Don’t forget to join in the conversation online too! Tweet #CoTseminar @cityoftrees
  46. 46. This seminar is supported by: Break Please return and be seated by 11am
  47. 47. Dean Bowie, CEO, GreenBlue Urban Essential Space for Trees below and above ground Speaker
  48. 48. Soil Compaction and Utilities Soil Volume and Quality Tree Aeration WSUDS Arborflow Tree Irrigation Case Studies Root Management RootSpace Areas covered:
  49. 49. Projected canopy area x 0.6m Soil volume and quality
  50. 50. Soil compaction “Soil compaction - the biggest issue with landscape soils” Tim O'Hare – soil scientist
  51. 51. Utilities Make the impossible possible with cells
  53. 53. Root Management Kings Cross Station: Used as a membrane between tunnel and roots
  54. 54. Tree irrigation Sainsbury’s laboratory: Evenly distributed water around the rootball
  55. 55. Tree aeration Anaerobism: “Immediate and major problem that can cause tree failure” The Landscape Journal – Fundamentals of tree pit soils
  56. 56. WSUDS Arborflow Arborflow 100 Series
  57. 57. WSUDS Case Study: Goldhawk Road, London
  58. 58. Shared Space Case Study: Leonard Circus, Shoreditch
  59. 59. Thank you.
  60. 60. Pete Bradshaw, Director of Estate Development at Manchester City Football Club Why a world class sporting facility needed world class infrastructure Speaker
  61. 61. Pete Bradshaw Director of Estates Development Any Wintry Afternoon in England CRW Nevinson Courtesy: Manchester City Art Gallery THE ESSENTIAL ROLE OF TREES AND GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE (GI) City of Trees seminar City Football Academy 22 September 2016
  62. 62. © Manchester City Planning for City Football Academy began in 2008 creating: • A positive working and training environment • A major regenerative project • Building on the theme of Street to Stadium Initial layout plan : 2008 Planning for our new academy Initial Plan : 2008
  63. 63. © Manchester City Consultation across staff, players, local people and fans was critical to the planning of our new academy The Club researched 92 of the world’s leading sports Academies to understand best practice and to ensure sustainable development Planning for our new academy Consultation engaged over 7000 people
  64. 64. © Manchester City Planning for our new academy The site in its former life Over 200 years of industry had occupied the site prior to City Football Academy The last major occupation was heavy industry and chemicals (dye stuffs) production – mainly via Clayton Aniline At its height, over 60,000 people worked in east Manchester industry
  65. 65. © Manchester City Planning for our new academy Changing places The main entrance of Clayton Aniline of Ashton New Road The site was active and productive into the late 1980s
  66. 66. © Manchester City Planning for our new academy All but gone… By the early years of the new century, Clayton Aniline and much of the local industry had gone – and with it most of the local employment The area was left with challenging ground conditions and the scars of former buildings and industry
  67. 67. © Manchester City Planning for our new academy Remediation A major programme of remediation began Some 84 acres of heavy and varied pollution All remediation was addressed on site with reuse central to the programme
  68. 68. © Manchester City Planning for our new academy Site preparation From flooded basements to ground levelling. From understanding galligu to stabilising benzines, it was critical to ensure that the site could host the activities and people of the Club and provide a suitable and healthy base of grasses, hedgerow, trees and associated wildlife
  69. 69. © Manchester City Developing our new academy Sustainable options…. Apart for the need for trees and hedgerow etc, the Club realised that sustainability must extend to its use of water and energy The inclusion of a sustainable energy centre, an 8m litre rainwater harvesting reservoir and aces to a site spring have been important contributions
  70. 70. © Manchester City Developing our new academy Local engagement The importance of local people is critical in all out planning and actions • 86% local procurement • 70% local employment • 96 apprentices • all with onward options • 14,000 hours of training • Engaged local schools and colleges
  71. 71. © Manchester City Developing our new academy The green edges Appointing Planit IE, the Club sought to make a significant local environmental and regenerative boundary change for east Manchester and the city It was critical to replace brick walls and concrete with green routes and avenues • 2000 mature trees • 3km of hedgerow • c60 acres of grasses
  72. 72. © Manchester City Developing our new academy Public realm Alongside the need to create secure boundaries, ensure privacy and create noise barriers, the softer, public-facing edges are important too
  73. 73. © Manchester City Developing our new academy A new home for more than just football… In line with Manchester City Council’s biodiversity strategy – and Manchester Green Corridor – it has been important to create spaces and places where wildlife can thrive • Moths • Butterflies • Bats • Bees • Birds • Dormice (?) • …..
  74. 74. © Manchester City Living in our new academy Trees that fit City Football Academy is a an active and busy site The trees and natural infrastructure work well with the Club’s day-to-day activities and business The scale and placements work well creating privacy where needed and an outward facing boundary that is well received
  75. 75. © Manchester City Living in our new academy Forming new habitats Albeit early days, the regular sighting of a wide variety of bird life, insects and colourful creatures provides confidence in the investment and in the future of the site and Campus
  76. 76. © Manchester City Living in our new academy The academy has realised some major buildings to provide a practical and functioning home for the Club’s players, scholars and staff Managed grass, natural boundaries and wild grasses are thriving side-by-side
  77. 77. © Manchester City Living in our new academy It’s a good start… There is absolute understanding that there is much to do That the work to date has just provided a base from which we need to work, to maintain best practice and to encourage further opportunities in natural landscape and public realm… …it’s a better outlook for which we care
  78. 78. © Manchester City Living in our new academy Initial Plan : 2008 Our core business is football We need to manage our pitches and grass in the best possible way – for high quality, for maximum use and to achieve best practice in sustainability We continue to learn and to share knowledge and we have dedicated and committed professionals in Grounds and Landscape
  79. 79. © Manchester City Our academy 2016 City Football Academy in 2016 provides a base for over 800 scholars, first team and EDS for a leading women’s team and a working base for the Club and Group There is a thriving community leisure and education hub and the Campus is one of the world’s leading sports districts seen by millions week-in week-out
  80. 80. © Manchester City
  81. 81. Question time ? ? ? Don’t forget to join in the conversation online too! Tweet #CoTseminar @cityoftrees
  82. 82. Steve Connor, Chair Closing remarks Tweet your thoughts! #CoTseminar @cityoftrees
  83. 83. 12:00 – 12:30pm – Visit to Manchester City Football Academy’s impressive landscape scheme (pre-booked people ONLY) Thankyou
  84. 84. This seminar has been supported by: