2. INTRODUCTION :-
The skin is the largest organs in the
body consisting 16% of body weight. Skin
disorders account for high proportion of
ailments in children. The skin of infant
and children is more susceptible to
disease than that of adults.
6. The commonest bacterial skin infection
PYODERMA :- Pyoderma refers to the
purulent bacterial infection of the skin.
The common causative organism is
staphylococcus aureus or Group A
IMPETIGO :- these are the most common
superficial contagious pyogenic infection
of the skin. They begin as reddish
macules which become vesicular. These
vesicles ruptures easily to leave moist
erosions which later become honey
FOLLICULITIS:- This is superficial infection
of the hair follicles.
FURUNCLS:- This is absence around hair
follicles. They are commonly seen on the
buttocks, neck, face and axillae.
ECHTHYMA ;- these are lesion of the lower
epidermis and upper dermis, occur at
trauma prone sites and are characterized by
a thick, brown, dry, hard adherent crusts.
CELLULITIS:- there is infection of the
dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Where the
affected part become red, oedematous,
warm and tender.
Folliculitis can be managed with topical antibiotics
such as 2% mupirocin or 2% fusidic acid creams
applied twice a daily.
Furuncles cellulitis can be treated by use of
cloxacillin, erythromycine, cefadroxil or cephalexin.
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome will be require
systematics intravenous antibiotics.
9. PARASITIC INFESTATIONS.
SCABIES:- this is intensely itchy infestation of
the skin caused by the itch mite, sarcoptes
Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by a
tiny burrowing mite called Sarcoptes scabiei.
• Scabies is contagious and can spread quickly
through close physical contact in a family, child
care group, school, class or nursing home.
11. SYMPTOMS and TREATMENT
Itching, often severe and usually worse at night.
Thin, irregular burrow tracks made up of tiny blisters or bumps on
Permethrin 5 percent (elimite): doctor may recommend
that you apply this cream — which contains chemicals that
kill scabies mites and their eggs — twice, with a week or
so between each application. Permethrin is generally
considered safe for children and adults of all ages,
including women who are pregnant
12. FUNGAL INFECTION
DERMATOPHYTOSES (RINGWORM) :-
Ringworm or Tinea or dermatophytoses are
superficial fungal infection caused by the
keratinophilic fungi. The typical lesion is an
erythematous ring shaped scaly plaque with
central clearing and an advancing border
studded with papules. Ringworm is classified
according to the anatomic sites capitis(scalp),
corporis( body), cruris(groin and upper thigh),
pedis (foot), manuum( hands), faciei(face),
Topical antifungal like 1% clotrimozole cream or
2% miconazole cream are applied twice daily for
2 -4 weeks.
Teach hygiene measures to the family such as not
to share towels, scarves, headgear which have
been contact with the lesion and to take drugs in
the right dosage regularly.
14. DIAPER DERMATITIS
Diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin of the
perineal and perianal areas (diaper area). it is most commonly caused
by irritation of the skin; however, there are other causes such as
atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis that can present as a
diaper rash. another common reason is infection with candida
albicans, which can be primary or secondary. diaper dermatitis
is usually a mild and self-limited condition that requires minimal
intervention. diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin
around the diaper area. it results due to a combination of multiple
factors such as increased moisture, prolonged contact with urine or
feces, and other irritants like detergents. Clinical presentation can be
variable. Skin findings include erythema, papules, scaling, and
erosions that can be present around the thighs, scrotum,
suprapubic area, and buttocks. It usually spares skin creases.
15. RISK FACTOR
Age: newborn and infant skin are more
immature and show increased susceptibility.
Diet: changes in diet as the infant grows are
related to changes in intestinal microbiota
and stool Ph. Breastfeeding has been proven
to be a protective factor.
Frequency of diaper changes: prolonged
contact with irritants such as urine and
feces increases the risk of skin
inflammation. Newborns and young infants
whose diapers are changed more frequently
tend to be less affected than older infants.
16. Treatment / Management
Good hygiene is essential to maintain skin integrity and prevent further
breakdown. Reducing the exposure to irritants, like urine and feces, can be
achieved with frequent diaper changes and using superabsorbent diapers that help
reduce skin over-hydration.
Bathing and cleaning the diaper area with water and a soap-free cleanser.
The use of topical emollients is recommended for both prevention and treatment.
They can improve the skin barrier function, and they also provide a barrier between
the skin and the diaper, urine, and feces, not limiting the contact with the skin and
diminishing irritation, but also preventing over-hydration to the skin. For the
management of current diaper dermatitis, apply with each diaper change. Examples
of emollients available include zinc oxide, petrolatum, cod liver oil, lanolin, among
For cases of diaper dermatitis that do not improve within 2 to 3 days of
implementing the measures above, or in moderate to severe cases, a short course
of low-potency corticosteroids can be used. Hydrocortisone 0.5% 2 times a day for
17. VIRAL INFESTATION
WARTS:- Common warts can grow on hands
or fingers. They're small, grainy bumps that
are rough to the touch. Warts caused by
human papillomavirus(HPV) Common warts
are small, grainy skin growths that occur
most often on fingers or hands. Rough to
the touch, common warts also often feature
a pattern of tiny black dots, which are
small, clotted blood vessels.
18. TREATMENT and PREVENTION
Treatment of Warts is Cryiosurgery, or application of caustic agents, like
5-20% salicylic acid, 20% lactic acid or 100% trichloroacetic acid
Avoid shaving over a wart.
Break the habit of biting your nails or picking at cuticles.
Don’t share towels, washcloths, clothing, nail clippers, razors or other
Don’t touch another person’s wart.
Keep your feet dry to prevent the spread of plantar warts.
Try not to scratch, cut or pick at a wart.