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Alignment Angles.ppt

  1. Chapters 65 & 67 Steering &Wheel Alignment Fundamentals
  2. Introduction to Wheel Alignment • Toe • Camber • Caster • Steering Axis Inclination (SAI) • Turning Radius ALIGNMENT ANGLES
  3. Toe is a comparison of the distances between the front and the rear of a pair of tires. (As seen from the top)
  4. Camber is the inward or outward tilt of a tire as seen from the top. Camber is a tire wearing angle. Positive camber causes outside wear, negative causes inside wear. Camber is often times an adjustable angle.
  5. Caster is the forward or rearward tilt of the spindle support arm. (As seen from the side) Caster is not a tire wearing angle. Caster is often times an adjustable angle. Unequal caster side to side will cause a steering “pull”.
  6. Steering axis inclination (SAI), AKA as BJI or KPI, is an imaginary line drawn through the upper and lower pivot points. NOT ADJUSTABLE NOT A TIRE WEARING ANGLE DRIRECTIONAL CONTROL ANGLE: after a turn SAI helps return to wheels to straight ahead
  7. Turning Radius, also known as toe out on turns, is the angle created by a common point to both front wheels.
  8. Before proceeding with any adjustment to the alignment angles, the steering and suspension components must be checked for excessive wear.
  9. Turning the tie rod adjusting sleeves that connect the inner and outer tie rods will change the toe angle.
  10. Springs will get tired and sag over a period of time. This will also change alignment angles. The springs are responsible for correct ride height.