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Principles, Practices, Philosophies
TOURISM
TWELFTH EDITION
Charles R. Goeldner
J. R. Brent Ritchie
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
CHAPTER
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Tourism in Perspective
1
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
• Understand what tourism is and its many
definitions.
• Learn the components of tourism and tourism
management.
• Examine the various approaches to studying
tourism.
• Appreciate how important this industry is to
the economy of the world and of many
countries.
• Know the benefits and costs of tourism.
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
DEFINITION OF TOURISM
Tourism may be defined as the
processes, activities, and outcomes
arising from the relationships and the
interactions among tourists, tourism
suppliers, host governments, host
communities, and surrounding
environments that are involved in the
attracting and hosting of visitors.
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
UNWTO DEFINITION OF
TOURISM
Tourism comprises the activities of persons
traveling to and staying in places outside their
usual environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business and
other purposes.
Source: UNWTO
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
VISITOR
A “visitor” is defined as those persons
who travel to a country other than that
in which they have their usual residence
but outside their usual environment for
a period not exceeding twelve months
and whose main purpose of visit is
other than the exercise of an activity
remunerated from within the place
visited.
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
(1) Tourists in international technical definitions.
(2) Excursionists in international technical definitions.
(3) Travelers whose trips are shorter than those that qualify for travel and tourism; e.g., under 50 miles (80
km) from home.
(4) Students traveling between home and school only -- other travel of students is within scope of travel
and tourism.
(5) All persons moving to a new place of residence including all one-way travelers, such as emigrants,
immigrants, refugees, domestic migrants, and nomads.
CLASSIFICATION OF
TRAVELERS
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
THE TOURISM PHENOMENON:
COMPONENTS OF TOURISM AND
TOURISM MANAGEMENT
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
DISCIPLINARY INPUTS TO THE
TOURISM FIELD
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Source: WTTC
TRAVEL AND TOURISM -
WORLD’S LARGEST INDUSTRY
• In 2011 it is estimated to account for some:
$5.9 trillion of Economic Activity
258.5 million jobs
• In 2021 it is estimated to account for:
$11.9 trillion of Economic Activity
323.8 million jobs
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
TRAVEL AND TOURISM CAN
GROW BY 4% PER YEAR
• Travel and Tourism will continue to expand
faster than the economy as a whole and
faster than comparable industries.
• By 2021 Travel & Tourism is expected to
account for:
• $11.9 trillion
• 323.8 million employees
• Growth depends on enlightened government
policy
Source: WTTC
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
WORLD’S TOP 5 TOURISM
DESTINATIONS 2009
Source: UNWTO
International
Tourist Arrivals
Rank, (million) % Change
2009 Country 2009 2009/08
1 France 74.2 -6.3
2 United States 54.9 --5.3
3 Spain 52.2 -8.7
4 China 50.9 -4.1
5 Italy 43.2 1.2
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
WORLD’S TOP 5 TOURISM
DESTINATIONS 2010
Source: UNWTO
International
Tourist Arrivals
Rank, (million) % Change
2010 Country 2010 2010/09
1 France 76.8 0.0
2 United States 59.7 8.7
n3 China 55.7 9.4
4 Spain 52.7 1.0
5 Italy 43.6 0.9
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
International
Tourism Receipts
Rank, (US$ billion) % Change
2009 Country 2009 2009/08
1 United States 93.9 -14.6
2 Spain 53.2 -9.0
3 France 49.4 -7.9
4 Italy 40.2 -7.2
5 China 39.7 -2.9
Source: UNWTO
WORLD’S TOP 5 TOURISM
EARNERS 2009
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
International
Tourism Receipts
Rank, (US$ billion) % Change
2010 Country 2010 2010/09
1 United States 103.5 9.9
2 Spain 52.5 -1.2
3 France 46.3 -6.2
4 China 45.8 15.5
5 Italy 38.7 -3.6
Source: UNWTO
WORLD’S TOP 5 TOURISM
EARNERS 2010
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
TOURISM:
WHAT IT MEANS TO THE U.S. ECONOMY
• Travel spending in U.S. is projected to total $738.5
billion in 2010.
• Tourism is the nation’s third largest retail industry.
• Tourism is the nation’s largest service export.
• Over 7.4 million Americans employed directly in the
travel industry, 9 million indirectly for a total of over 16
million jobs.
• Tourism provides more than 684,000 executive level
positions in each year.
• Travel industry provides a disproportionate number of
jobs for the traditionally disadvantaged.
Source: U.S. Travel Association
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
BENEFITS OF TOURISM -
ECONOMIC
• Provides employment
opportunities
• Generates foreign
exchange
• Increases Incomes
• Increases GNP
• Can be built on existing
infrastructure
• Develops an infrastructure
that will also help stimulate
local commerce and
industry
• Can be developed with
local products and
resources
• Diversifies the economy
• Tends to be compatible
with other economic
activities
• Spreads development
• High multiplier impact
• Increases governmental
revenues
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
BENEFITS OF TOURISM -
SOCIAL
• Broadens educational and cultural horizons
• Improves quality of life - higher incomes and
improved standards of living
• Justifies environmental protection and
improvement
• Provides tourist and recreational facilities that
may be used by a local population
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
BENEFITS OF TOURISM -
CULTURAL
• Reinforces preservation of heritage and tradition
• Visitor interest in local culture provides employment
for artists, musicians and other performing artists
enhancing cultural heritage
• Breaks down language barriers, sociocultural
barriers, class barriers, racial barriers, political
barriers, and religious barriers
• Creates a favorable worldwide image for a
destination
• Promotes a global community
• Promotes international understanding and peace
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
DISADVANTAGES OF TOURISM -
ECONOMIC
• Develops excess demand
• Results in high leakage
• Creates difficulties of seasonality
• Causes inflation
• Can result in unbalanced economic
development
• Increases vulnerability to economic and
political changes
© 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
DISADVANTAGES OF TOURISM -
SOCIAL
• Creates social problems
• Degrades the natural physical environment and
creates pollution
• Degrades the cultural environment
• Threatens family structure
• Commercializes culture, religion, and the arts
• Creates misunderstanding
• Creates conflicts in the host society
• Contributes to disease, economic fluctuation, and
transportation problems

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tourism chapter 1.ppt

  • 1. ___________________________ Principles, Practices, Philosophies TOURISM TWELFTH EDITION Charles R. Goeldner J. R. Brent Ritchie © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 2. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved CHAPTER © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved Tourism in Perspective 1
  • 3. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Understand what tourism is and its many definitions. • Learn the components of tourism and tourism management. • Examine the various approaches to studying tourism. • Appreciate how important this industry is to the economy of the world and of many countries. • Know the benefits and costs of tourism.
  • 4. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved DEFINITION OF TOURISM Tourism may be defined as the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors.
  • 5. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved UNWTO DEFINITION OF TOURISM Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. Source: UNWTO
  • 6. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved VISITOR A “visitor” is defined as those persons who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence but outside their usual environment for a period not exceeding twelve months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
  • 7. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved (1) Tourists in international technical definitions. (2) Excursionists in international technical definitions. (3) Travelers whose trips are shorter than those that qualify for travel and tourism; e.g., under 50 miles (80 km) from home. (4) Students traveling between home and school only -- other travel of students is within scope of travel and tourism. (5) All persons moving to a new place of residence including all one-way travelers, such as emigrants, immigrants, refugees, domestic migrants, and nomads. CLASSIFICATION OF TRAVELERS
  • 8. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved THE TOURISM PHENOMENON: COMPONENTS OF TOURISM AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT
  • 9. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved DISCIPLINARY INPUTS TO THE TOURISM FIELD
  • 10. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved Source: WTTC TRAVEL AND TOURISM - WORLD’S LARGEST INDUSTRY • In 2011 it is estimated to account for some: $5.9 trillion of Economic Activity 258.5 million jobs • In 2021 it is estimated to account for: $11.9 trillion of Economic Activity 323.8 million jobs
  • 11. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved TRAVEL AND TOURISM CAN GROW BY 4% PER YEAR • Travel and Tourism will continue to expand faster than the economy as a whole and faster than comparable industries. • By 2021 Travel & Tourism is expected to account for: • $11.9 trillion • 323.8 million employees • Growth depends on enlightened government policy Source: WTTC
  • 12. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved WORLD’S TOP 5 TOURISM DESTINATIONS 2009 Source: UNWTO International Tourist Arrivals Rank, (million) % Change 2009 Country 2009 2009/08 1 France 74.2 -6.3 2 United States 54.9 --5.3 3 Spain 52.2 -8.7 4 China 50.9 -4.1 5 Italy 43.2 1.2
  • 13. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved WORLD’S TOP 5 TOURISM DESTINATIONS 2010 Source: UNWTO International Tourist Arrivals Rank, (million) % Change 2010 Country 2010 2010/09 1 France 76.8 0.0 2 United States 59.7 8.7 n3 China 55.7 9.4 4 Spain 52.7 1.0 5 Italy 43.6 0.9
  • 14. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved International Tourism Receipts Rank, (US$ billion) % Change 2009 Country 2009 2009/08 1 United States 93.9 -14.6 2 Spain 53.2 -9.0 3 France 49.4 -7.9 4 Italy 40.2 -7.2 5 China 39.7 -2.9 Source: UNWTO WORLD’S TOP 5 TOURISM EARNERS 2009
  • 15. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved International Tourism Receipts Rank, (US$ billion) % Change 2010 Country 2010 2010/09 1 United States 103.5 9.9 2 Spain 52.5 -1.2 3 France 46.3 -6.2 4 China 45.8 15.5 5 Italy 38.7 -3.6 Source: UNWTO WORLD’S TOP 5 TOURISM EARNERS 2010
  • 16. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved TOURISM: WHAT IT MEANS TO THE U.S. ECONOMY • Travel spending in U.S. is projected to total $738.5 billion in 2010. • Tourism is the nation’s third largest retail industry. • Tourism is the nation’s largest service export. • Over 7.4 million Americans employed directly in the travel industry, 9 million indirectly for a total of over 16 million jobs. • Tourism provides more than 684,000 executive level positions in each year. • Travel industry provides a disproportionate number of jobs for the traditionally disadvantaged. Source: U.S. Travel Association
  • 17. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved BENEFITS OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Provides employment opportunities • Generates foreign exchange • Increases Incomes • Increases GNP • Can be built on existing infrastructure • Develops an infrastructure that will also help stimulate local commerce and industry • Can be developed with local products and resources • Diversifies the economy • Tends to be compatible with other economic activities • Spreads development • High multiplier impact • Increases governmental revenues
  • 18. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved BENEFITS OF TOURISM - SOCIAL • Broadens educational and cultural horizons • Improves quality of life - higher incomes and improved standards of living • Justifies environmental protection and improvement • Provides tourist and recreational facilities that may be used by a local population
  • 19. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved BENEFITS OF TOURISM - CULTURAL • Reinforces preservation of heritage and tradition • Visitor interest in local culture provides employment for artists, musicians and other performing artists enhancing cultural heritage • Breaks down language barriers, sociocultural barriers, class barriers, racial barriers, political barriers, and religious barriers • Creates a favorable worldwide image for a destination • Promotes a global community • Promotes international understanding and peace
  • 20. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved DISADVANTAGES OF TOURISM - ECONOMIC • Develops excess demand • Results in high leakage • Creates difficulties of seasonality • Causes inflation • Can result in unbalanced economic development • Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes
  • 21. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved DISADVANTAGES OF TOURISM - SOCIAL • Creates social problems • Degrades the natural physical environment and creates pollution • Degrades the cultural environment • Threatens family structure • Commercializes culture, religion, and the arts • Creates misunderstanding • Creates conflicts in the host society • Contributes to disease, economic fluctuation, and transportation problems