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FanTALES: A Needs Analysis for Multilingual Digital Storytelling Tasks in 21st  Century European Classrooms

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Presented May 19, 2017 at the CALICO Conference in Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
Shannon Sauro
Frederik Cornillie
Judith Buendgens-Kosten

This study reports on the findings of a needs analysis, carried out within the context of the FanTALES project, which explores whether multilingual digital story-telling inspired by fanfiction and gaming can meet the linguistic, digital, and intercultural learning needs and goals of secondary school learners in three European contexts (Sweden, Flanders, and Germany). Findings, relevant for teachers and instructional designers, hold implications for the development of guidelines for the design multilingual digital storytelling tasks to foster advanced language and literary learning, digital skill development, and intercultural competence among these learner populations.

Publicado en: Educación
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FanTALES: A Needs Analysis for Multilingual Digital Storytelling Tasks in 21st  Century European Classrooms

  1. 1. FanTALES Shannon Sauro |Malmö University Frederik Cornillie |KU Leuven Judith Buendgens-Kosten |Göethe University Frankfurt A Needs Analysis for Multilingual Digital Storytelling Tasks in 21st Century European Classrooms
  2. 2. Overview FanTALES The Needs Analysis Preliminary Results Consequences and Next Steps
  3. 3. Fan Fiction Multi- lingualism Games (Interactive Fiction) Tele- collaboration
  4. 4. Interactive Fiction (IF) An interactive story where the reader determines the outcome of the events. Can be (a combination of): - a puzzle; - a literary work; - a text-based game. Affordances for L2 teaching and learning: - reading and communicative interaction through information gap tasks (Ss each play one side of the story); - creative writing and computational thinking by using open authoring tools for developing IF (~ STEAM).
  5. 5. Fan fiction “fictional writing that reinterprets and remixes the events, characters, and settings found in popular media” (Sauro, 2017, p. 131) Can be used: To link reading and writing (fan fiction based on popular texts) To link listening and writing (fan fiction based on movies and TV) To provide alternate readings to dominant interpretations of popular media To bridge language and literary learning (Sauro & Sundmark, 2016)
  6. 6. Multilingual Storytelling Learners can draw on multiple languages: School language (e.g. German in Germany) Modern foreign languages (e.g. English and French in Germany) Other languages spoken by the students or within their community (e.g. Turkish, Russian and Arabic in Germany) Writing multilingual stories creates rich learning opportunties: Supports the plurilingual principle: All language skills can be used & all language skills have value (Council of Europe 2001) Weakens the "monolingual habitus" (Gogolin 1994, Hu 2010) Cf. "identity texts" (Cummins 2005)
  7. 7. Telecollaboration To confront other cultures, battle stereotypes, and create openness toward multilingual practices, the project will be carried out transnationally.
  8. 8. The Need for A Needs Analysis “the design of technology- mediated TBLT must gather information about not just the tasks, but the technological tools involved in the task; the participants’ skills and digital literacies; as well as their accessibility, resources, and support.” (González-Lloret, 2014, p. 37)
  9. 9. Component 1: Policy Analysis
  10. 10. Policy analysis European level local level (country, state, regional)
  11. 11. National Curriculum Curriculum for the Compulsory School, Pre-School Class and the Leisure-Time Centre (Lgr 11) (K to 9) Curriculum for the Upper-Secondary School (10-12) (Skolverket, 2011; 2013) Subject Area Syllabi Aims and Goals; Core Content; Knowledge Requirements (Kunskapskrav) English Modern Languages Mother Tongue Tuition Swedish as a Second Language Technology Local Level: Sweden
  12. 12. Local Level: Flanders National Level Government defined final attainment levels (eindtermen) with general descriptors of what pupils must learn School Networks Three types (state schools, subsidized public schools, subsidized free schools) Each network defines their curricula (leerplannen) on the basis of final attainment levels. More concrete final attainment levels
  13. 13. CEFR •The Common European Framework of Languages •Provides the model of language competencies all following steps are based on Federal •Bildungsstandards (Educational standards) •Defined by KMK (Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany) State •Each state translates the Bildungsstandards into State standards •Example Hessia: Kerncurriculum (core curriculum) School •Each school in Hessia translates the Kerncurriculum into a Fachcurriculum (subject curriculum) that guides teaching practice within that school •It uses existing state-level guidelines (Leitfaden) to support this process Local Level: Germany & Hessia
  14. 14. Component 2: Teacher beliefs
  15. 15. Teacher beliefs Constructs Method • Popular stories for L2 teaching and learning • Games in the classroom • Storytelling for intercultural and multilingual dialogue • Telecollaboration and technologies in the classroom • Online survey • Convenience sample of future and practicing teachers
  16. 16. Preliminary Results
  17. 17. Multilingualism In the curricula of most European countries, two FLs are mandatory (European Commission, 2012) Creative Storytelling Learning through creative linguistic genres can develop respect and empathy (Kidd & Castano, 2013). Digital Skills Young peoples’ digital literacy skills are often overestimated (European Commission: Education and Training, 2014) School education is not always successful in developing ICT skills to a desirable level (European Commission, 2013; European Commission, 2016). European Level: Educational
  18. 18. European Level: Intercultural Paris Declaration of 17 March 2015 “Promoting citizenship and the common values of freedom, tolerance and non-discrimination through education” - Promote development of social, civic and intercultural competences in children and young people; - Develop resistance to discrimination and indoctrination through critical thinking and media literacy; - Adapt education system to the needs of disadvantaged learners; - Promote intercultural dialogue through all forms of learning. “almost all countries with developments since March 2015 cover ‘Initial teacher education and continuing professional development’”
  19. 19. Multilingualism Mother-tongue instruction – develop cultural identity and be multilingual Creative Storytelling Expressing oneself through aesthetic expression (in multiple languages) Attainment of narrative and artistic-literary text genres in modern languages Digital Skills Media literacy – ability to participate in public discourse through media Ability to deal with technological challenges in an innovative way Policy Documents: Implementational Space
  20. 20. Questionnaire – sample 652 9 • balanced distribution of student/beginning teachers and experienced teachers • 86% from secondary education • 65% English 34% Dutch 30% French 10% German
  21. 21. Questionnaire – popular stories Harry Potter (26) Hunger Games (15) Game of Thrones (7) 13 Reasons Why (5) Twilight (5) Roald Dahl (4) The Fault in Our Stars (3) Tim Bowler (3) The Maze Runner (2) Lord of the Rings (2) House of Cards (1) Sherlock (1) (I have no idea) (I do not know my students' habits well enough) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 I disagree strongly I disagree I neither agree nor disagree I agree strongly I agree Popular stories deserve a place in the language classroom
  22. 22. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 reading writing listening speaking communicative interaction Popular stories: what skills? In your opinion, what skills should language teachers spend most classroom time on when dealing with popular stories?
  23. 23. Questionnaire – games “Video Games should be treated like any other form of literature” “No, never. However, I sometimes refer to them in literature, f.i. on Xbox Dante's Inferno when we're talking about Dante, or some historical context f.i. from the Call of Duty franchise. A lot of pupils have played them and still remember some of the actions without having the right referential structure.” 48%don’t know what IF is 22% have limited to extensive experience with IF familiarity with IF
  24. 24. Questionnaire – intercultural dialogue 83% telling a story in the classroom from different points of view is a great way to discuss identity and culture agrees 46% multilingual storytelling is a great way to reflect on the relation between language, identity and culture agrees 37% undecided 16% disagrees
  25. 25. Questionnaire – telecollaboration Digital technologies enjoyed to communicate with each other or with peers in other countries62% think telecollaboration is useful for most to all students 25% think it’s useful for only a small number of students Digital technologies prohibited in the classroom “Smartphones, any popular apps that are not normally used in the classroom”
  26. 26. Consequences and Next Steps
  27. 27. Do we have a mandate for doing this project? What is missing / point of attention? teachers policy & curriculum learners Yes Yes ?? Different valuation of fiction as aesthetic expression in the national curricula • Multilingualism in the dominantly monolingual L2 classroom • Training on IF • Focus groups and/or classroom observations • Technology that works for them and teachers
  28. 28. Council of Europe (2011) Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/Framework_EN.pdf Cummins, J. (2005) ‘Affirming identity in multilingual classrooms‘, The Whole child, 63/1: 38–43. European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2012): Key data on teaching languages at school in Europe 2012. European Commission (2013). Opening up Education: Innovative teaching and learning for all through new Technologies and Open Educational Resources. Brussels. European Commission: Education and Training (2014). The International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS): Main findings and implications for education policies in Europe. European Commission (2016). Education and Training Monitor 2016. https://ec.europa.eu/education/sites/education/files/monitor2016_en.pdf European Union Education Ministers (2015). Declaration on Promoting citizenship and the common values of freedom, tolerance and non-discrimination through education. Gogolin, I. (1994) Der monolinguale Habitus der multilingualen Schule. Münster: Waxmann. González-Lloret, M. (2014). The need for needs analysis in technology-mediated TBLT. In M. González-Lloret & L. Ortega (Eds). Technology-mediated TBLT: Researching technology and tasks, (pp. 22-50). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Hu, A. (2010). ‘Migrationsbedingte Mehrsprachigkeit und schulischer Fremdsprachenunterricht - revisited’. In: J. Appel, S. Doff, J. Rymarczyk and E. Thaler (eds) Foreign Language Teaching - History, Theory, Methods:, pp. 65–82. Berlin [u.a.]: Langenscheidt. Kidd, D.C., & Castano, E. (2013). Reading literary fiction improves theory of mind. Science, 342, 377-380. Sauro, S. (2017). Online fan practices and CALL. CALICO Journal, 34(2), 131-146. doi: 10.1558/CJ.33077 Sauro, S., & Sundmark, B. (2016). Report from Middle Earth: Fanfiction tasks in the EFL classroom. ELT Journal, 70(4), 414-423 . doi: 10.1093/elt/ccv075 Skolverket. (2011). Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and the leisure time centre 2011. Stockholm: Skolverket. Skolverket. (2013). Curriculum for the upper secondary school. Stockholm: Skolverket. References

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