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poultry farming pptx

  1. 1. Poultry status and its contribution Submitted to- Dr. Kulvir Sra Dhindsa ( HOD) Department of Zoology DAV College,Chandigarh Submitted. By- Chetna ,Jahanavi, Shara, Himani, Ishita, Vibhas, Ayush, Zareena , Shilpa
  2. 2. Requirements • A minimum of 40-50 g of feed per chick is required. • Quality of feed : Crumb texture becomes important. • Science and research has proved that chicks like a size between 2mm and 3mm. Pans are shallow , more feed in the center row .
  3. 3. Requirements Lighting • Lighting is atleast 10ft. above but the intensity from these led lights is very important and bright. • Light intensity is of no less than 20 Lux during the light phase for the first 3 days of life to help birds locate feed and water . • Darkness benefits birds by allowing them to sleep and develop 24hr day/ night rhythms which is important in immune function, growth rate, digestion, lameness and general health . • From 5 day of placement a dark period of atleast 4 hrs in each 24hr period is required. • Dark periods must be no more than 20%of the intensity of the light period.
  4. 4. Requirements Climate Recommendations • Air temperature : 30 degree Celsius. • Litter temperature: 28-30 degree Celsius . • Relative Humidity : 50-70 degree Celsius . • Ammonia < 25ppm. • Carbon Dioxide <3500ppm.
  5. 5. Requirements Water • Average of 20-30 chicks per nipple ( Brooding ) . • Average of 10-15 birds per nipple ( Grow out ) . • Broiler’s chicks water intake : 1ml /bird /hr for the last 24 hrs .
  6. 6. BROILER meat production Cross bred of plymouth rock and cornish
  7. 7. Introduction • Broiler is a bird of about 8 weeks of age of either sex with an average body weight of 1.5 to 2.0 kg • Today India is the 5th largest producer of broiler meat in the world with an annual production of 2.47 million MT • Despite this achievement,the per capita availability per annum of poultry meat in india is only 2.96kg (ICMR recommendation is 11kg)
  8. 8. Advantages of broiler farming • Initial investment is a little • Rearing period – 35 days • More numbers of flocks can be taken in the same shed • Broiler has high FCR • Faster return from the investment • Demand for poultry meat
  9. 9. Broiler management • It is the set of all management practices including housing ,feeding ,watering , vaccination etc from receiving of day old chick to the day of selling them • It is necessary as poultry is highly prone to various diseases which often leads to heavy losses • Efficient management will lead to multifold increase in the production and profits
  10. 10. Broiler management Pre-arrival Housing Preheating Litter disinfection Post-arrival House environment Brooder management Nutrition Vaccination schedule Carcass disposal
  11. 11. Pre-arrival management :housing • Housing should be cost effective , durable and provide a controllable environment • Select a well drained site that has plenty of natural air movement • The house should be oriented on an east-west axis to reduce the effect of direct sunlight on the sidewalls during the hottest part of the day • The main objective is to reduce the temperature fluctuation during any 24-hour period
  12. 12. Pre-arrival management :preheating Pre heating • The preheating must be sufficient to heat the whole surface area to a level of 28-30° • Prevents ammonia production and anaerobic fermentation • According to climatic conditions , insulation of the house and quantity of litter , the preheating time can vary between 36hrs in summers and 48 hours in winters • Cold litter when the chicks arrive can be the origin of nephritis , diarrhea and leg problems
  13. 13. Pre-arrival management:housing Stocking density • in addition to the performance and profit considerations, correct stocking density also has important welfare implications • To accurately assess stocking density , factors such as climate housing types, ventilation systems , processing weight and welfare regulations must be taken into account • In warmer climates a stocking density of 30kg/m2 is closer to ideal House type density Open sided 30kg/m2 (6.2lb/ft.2) Solid wall 35kg/m2 (7.2lb/ft.2)
  14. 14. Pre-arrival management:litter • During brooding, the litter acts as insulation and comfort for the baby chicks • The type of litter used can be : shavings, chopped straw , rice hulls , recycled paper should be dry, non corrosive and good absorbing • Shavings or chopped straw can be used in a temperature climate 2kh/m2 in summers , 5kg/m2 in winters • Pre-warm the litter to eliminate condensation due to nits contact with the cold floor
  15. 15. Pre-arrival management :housing Organising the house • This will depend on 3 principal elements: • The type of house and level of insulation • The heating system (whole house or local) • The watering system (round-type, nipple or trough) • Whole house • If the house is well insulated (or in a warm climate) use 80 to 100% of the house • Start the chicks in the center of the house with a fence on each side , 2-3 meters from the wall
  16. 16. Pre-arrival management:housing • Organising the house • For 1000 chicks :5 plates , 5 new egg trays, 6-7 m of paper under the nipples 0.70m wide, 40-50 nipples, 5 minicups
  17. 17. Pre-arrival management:housing • Localized heating • In poorly insulated houses , do not exceed 40 chicks per m2 in the brooding area (650 chicks in a 5 m diameter circle) • The placement of the equipment should be such that the chicks can always find water and feed
  18. 18. Pre-arrival management : disinfection • Final disinfection • carried out 24 hours before the chicks arrive • Spraying of insecticide permethrin 5.7% EC spray , dilute 7 tsp./gal or 1 qt/25 gal for .05% solution • Painting walls with calcium carbonate • Use 400ml of formaldehyde and 200 g of potassium permanganate for each 1000 cubic ft. or air space .fumigate for 24hrs • Footbath of calcium carbonate outside house and allowing entrance only of authorizes workers
  19. 19. All in all out system • All birds in the shed/farm should be of the same age group and preferably of the same breed and source of supply. If this is not possible minimize the no of age groups on the farm • This system is strongly recommended for maximum exploitation of genetic potential of birds • Efficient management , sanitation and vaccination programs become more complicated and less effective in multiple age sites
  20. 20. Receiving the chicks • Managing the flock • The signs of a good quality chick are: • Its activity • Some chirping • Absence of respiratory anomalies • A properly healed navel • Weight and uniformity are also important • Weigh 200 chicks at random for an accurate average
  21. 21. Receiving the chicks • The flock record • In organizations where all information is required , this record should contain all the data about the flock • The principal data required: • Hatch date • Chick origin, donor flock , hatchery • Daily mortality split into its different types (heart attack, locomotion, etc) • Body weight taken at their arrival and thereafter , each 5 days • Feed company, delivery date , type of feed, quantity • Daily feed and water consumption • The vaccination dates , batch no, treatment , products, (dosage and dates)
  22. 22. Post arrival of chick Starting the chicks • House environment • Ventilation • Lightening • Temperature • Brooder management • Nutrition • Feeding and watering • Vaccination schedule • Carcass disposal
  23. 23. Starting the chicks:environment • Temperature humidity ventilation • Temperature zone for the baby chick is very tight (31-33°C). Below 31°C the chicks is not capable of maintaining its body temperature • Brooder management • the chicks position relative to the heat is an important indication to judge whether the house environment is comfortable
  24. 24. Starting the chicks:environment • Lightning for brooders • Radiants of 3500 watts capacity and higher can be hung at a height of 1.50- 2.50 m in well insulated houses and used for whole house heating • Radiants of 1700 watts capacity operated in poorly insulated should only be used for localised brooding and hung at a height of 1.20m – 1.50m • Use 23-24 hours light for the first 3-5 days to encourage feed and water consumption • Light intensity should be 5 watts/m2 when using incandescent bulbs and 60 lux for fluorescent tubes
  25. 25. Nutrition :feed and feeding • Feed being the major expenditure that is around 60-70% and also significantly affects the production performance • During early brooding period feed should be provided in crumble form on supplemental feeders (1/100chicks) so chicks have easy access • Types of feeds: Age in days type 0-7 Pre-starter 8-17 starter 18-27 grower 28-till the day of selling finisher
  26. 26. Nutrition:feed • Diets and dietary treatments • Diets primarily compose of corn ,wheat, soybean, vitamins
  27. 27. Nutrition : watering • First 10-14 days • This water should be available in chick waterers (minidrinkers etc) which should be frequently cleaned and filled • 7days until market • Allow 2cm of watering space per chick when using trough type waterers • When determining drinker placements ensure that birds need not to travel over 8ft. To get water • Drinkers should be washed daily with KMnO4 water solution
  28. 28. Nutrition: watering • The height of drinkers should be adjusted in such a way that the brim of the drinkers should be in a level corresponding to the birds back
  29. 29. Carcass disposal • The immediate burning or burying of dead birds is an imp part of a good disease prevention program • Dead birds act as a source of disease that can be spread by rats ,dogs, mosquitoes, and insects that may act as carriers of the disease .the two most acceptable methods are described below: 1. Incinerators 2. Disposal pits
  30. 30. Carcass disposal • Incinerators • Good incinerators is probably the best means of disposal especially in an area where there is poor soil drainage or a danger of contaminating the water supply • Disposal pit • Birds decompose fairly rapidly without the use of chemicals pit 6 ft. in diameter and 6 ft. deep is large enough to take care of one 10000-capacity broiler unit
  31. 31. Chick temperature and body weight
  32. 32. Chick temperature from day 1 0-7 days Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 95° F 90° F 85° F 80° F 75°F 70°F 65°F Time for out
  33. 33. Weight per week Week 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Weight (in grams) 42g 170g 450g 865g 1410g 2250g 2700g 3350g 3900g
  34. 34. • Hydarate lime at 1 kg or super phosphate of lime at 0.75kg per sq.m can be used for wet litter. • Leaky or over flowing waterers not to be used. • Change the wet litter with fresh dried ones • Proper ventilation to remove excess moisture.
  35. 35. CLEANING AND DISINFECTION OF POULTRY SHEDS Made by: Vibhas Kashyap M.Sc. (Zoology) II Roll No 32228
  36. 36. Introduction • Effective cleaning and disinfection are key components of routine biosecurity measures in poultry farming. • Cleaning and disinfection together comprise decontamination and should be carried out from time to time to reduce the build-up of pathogenic organisms. • Decontamination kills any disease organisms like virus, bacteria, parasite, mold etc that might be present in a farm at the end of a production cycle or after a disease outbreak. It allows for safe re- population of farm.
  37. 37. Cleaning • Cleaning referes to physical removal of foreign materials like dust, soil and organic material such as: droppings, blood, secretions etc which protect the farm birds from disease causing agents. • A good cleaning job can remove up to 80% disease causing agents.
  38. 38. Types of Cleaning • Cleaning can be divided into two types: 1. Complete or terminal house cleaning: practiced after removal of flock 2. Partial/concurrent house cleaning: done while the birds remain inside the shed
  39. 39. Points to be considered in complete cleaning • After removing the flock, remove the left over feathers, droppings, litter etc. • It should be then followed by complete disinfection of the shed. Firstly the house should be fumigated and then it should be subjected to an effective disinfection. • Keep the shed empty for a minimum period of 10 days before arrival of new flock. Before introduction of new flock it should be ensured that there should be no extra moisture in litter, otherwise chances of fungal growth are more.
  40. 40. Points to be considered in partial cleaning • Thoroughly cleaning of the fans,lights etc. and it should be a regular feature. • Sweeping the house, removal of the caked litter, provision of clean litter should be there. • Regularly disinfecting the brooder guards, feeders, jugs, drinking water containers using iodophores and 5% sodium hypchlorite, sometimes other effective chemicals like sodium dodecyl sulphate, formalin and iodine compounds may also be used. • Regularly sanitize the drinking water. Drinking water for poultry as well as cooling water used in poultry sheds must meet appropriate water standards.
  41. 41. Step 1: Dry Cleaning • It should be performed inside and outside the buildings, including storage and entry rooms, egg rooms, egg coolers, hallways and stairways. • Fans and other air inlets should be cleaned from the outside. Inside the building, dust and other dirt on ceilings, light fixtures, beams, ledges, walls, cages, fan parts, air inlets, floors (especially in corners), pit ends and walkways should be brushed, swept, vacuumed, scraped and wiped. • Note: Dry cleaning should not be used for cleaning poultry houses infected with air-born diseases such as: Avian born diseases such as: Avian Influenza or Newcastle it may cause aerosolization of the virus and increase the risk of spreading the disease.
  42. 42. Step 2: Wet Cleaning • It involves soaking, washing and rinsing. Detergents and other surfactants of alkaline pH (8.5-10) are often added to washing solutions to loosen debris and films and improve the penetration of cleaning agents. • Using detergent/soap and water, we soak the area and scrub to remove remaining organic material as well as dirt and grease • For washing we can use common detergent powder sold for cloth laundering – is cheap and effective • Wet cleaning reduces the risk of aerosolization of virus
  43. 43. Washing • Wash every surface in the building, especially window sills, ceiling trusses, wall sills and any surface where dirt and dust may accumulate. • The washing solution can be either a neutral detergent (ph between 6 and 8) or an alkaline detergent (ph above 8). • Alkaline substances vary in their strength with the strongest causing burns and internal injuries if swallowed. A mild alkali is baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and moderate alkalis include household ammonia, borax and trisodium phosphate. Strong alkalis include washing soda (sodium carbonate) and lye (caustic soda). Mix in hot water—160oF or hotter is best.
  44. 44. Disinfection
  45. 45. We must make clear that disinfection is not a substitute for cleaning and that it must also have certain characteristics: • Highly germicidal. • Non-toxic for man and birds. • Effective in the presence of moderate amounts of organic material. • They must not stain or be corrosive. • Soluble in water. • Capable of penetrating materials and crevices. • Not associated with foul odors. • Cheap and easily available.
  46. 46. Disinfectants • Disinfectants are the chemical compounds which are commercially sold and each has its own properties for specific applications. The various disinfectants are as follows: • Cresols: They are derived from the distillation of petroleum. They are cheap and effective biocides when applied to soil or buildings. They cannot be used where there are live chickens, processed meat or eggs as they are going to be tainted by the chemical’s odour. • Organic phenols which are recommended for use in hatcheries for equipment decontamination.
  47. 47. • Quaternary ammonium compounds also known as “QAT”. They are highly suitable to decontaminate equipment, housing, and in hatcheries on the condition that an anionic detergent is used before applying QAT. • Chlorine compounds: They are mostly used in processing plants and to purify water on livestock farms. Hypochlorite is effective only when pH value range between 6.5 and 7.5 in organic matter free water and you need to expose it to inactive bacteria for 10-20 minutes. • Formalin: It is a corrosive and carcinogenic compound that is recommended for fumigating eggs in cabinets designed for this purpose. However, there are special precautions to be followed by the applicator to avoid being exposed and injured.
  48. 48. Fumigation of Poultry Houses • Fumigation is a method of disinfection or destruction of harmful disease organisms in an environment by using fumigants. Fumigants are chemicals that are released into the atmosphere in the form of gas or fume. • The purpose for fumigation is to destroy disease organisms that could infect chicks, poults or ducklings, especially transmissible diseases such as fowl typhoid, pullorum, epidemic tremor, infectious bronchitis and chronic respiratory disease (CRD). • It is also important to fumigate brooding houses or pens especially previously used houses before they are stocked with new day old chicks or poults. Fumigating your brooding house or pen prior to brooding or stocking is beneficial and does a lot of good for the coming chicks or animals.
  49. 49. Steps in Fumigation • Take the internal dimension of the brooding house; i.e. the length, breadth, and height of the house. • Close up every opening such as windows and vents with a polyethene material to prevent further air from coming in. • Provide an unbreakable wide-mouth container such as an enamel or ceramic dish of fairly large size, able to accommodate the volume of formalin and more. • Ensure the ambient temperature is about 24C and 75% relative humidity. Formaldehyde gas works best in a warm and humid environment.
  50. 50. • Weigh out the quantity of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) needed into the container. For single strength fumigation, the quantity needed is 20 g per 2.83 m3 • Measure the corresponding volume of formalin needed. The volume is usually double the weight of the potassium permanganate numerically. For example, for single strength fumigation, the volume of formalin needed is 4 cl. • Gently add the formalin to the KMnO4(and not vice versa). Thereafter, lock up the brooding house. • Leave the house locked for 1 week. After a week of locking up the house, open it and the windows and allow the residual gas to escape. Then reclose it up for the arrival of your chicks.
  51. 51. Isolation and quarantine of new birds
  52. 52. Personal hygeine • Specific over all clothing for employees must be provided. • Wash hands thoroughly before and after entering the farm area. Washing of hands can be done with soap or detergents with contact time of 10 minutes. • Wear clean clothes while working with birds in the farm. The clothes should be washable with laundry detergent. Preferably for this purpose detergents or oxidizing agents Dirty clothes should be washed with detergent and hung out to dry in the sun.
  53. 53. • Since disease in poultry can be transmitted easily through boots, therefore, boots should be used after cleaning and disinfection. The best approach would be disinfecting footwear before and after working with birds or keeping a separate pair of shoes to work around birds and changing into other shoes when leaving the premise. • When the care personnel needs to attend to chickens or other poultry (e.g. collecting eggs, feeding or watering, change of bedding or repair of fencing material), a change of clothes/ boots should be required. • Medical check up of all workers coming in contact with livestock and feed should be done
  54. 54. Conclusion • Complete sterilisation of a site is impossible under most practical farming conditions, but every possible measure which helps to reduce the challenge is worthwhile. • Practical experiences show very clearly that the efficacy of and the benefit gained from, all procedures are determined by the planning, organisation and accurate performance of the various steps of the sanitation programme. • It is essential that all those involved in poultry farming should understand the importance of all cleaning and disinfection procedures and should apply it for getting disease free production.
  55. 55. poultry farming, raising of birds domestically or commercially, primarily for meat and eggs but also for feathers. Chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese are of primary importance CONCLUSION : - Commercial poultry feeding is a highly perfected science that ensures a maximum intake of energy for growth and fat production. High-quality and well- balanced protein sources produce a maximum amount of muscle, organ, skin, and feather growth
  56. 56. MANAGEMENT Carefully controlled environment that avoids crowding, chilling, overheating, or frightening is almost universal in poultry farming.
  57. 57. • Poultry breeding is an outstanding example of the application of basic genetic principles of inbreeding and crossbreeding as well as of intensive mass selection to effect faster and cheaper gains in meat and maximum egg production for the egg- laying strains
  58. 58. The advantages of broiler farming are • a) Initial investment is lower than layer farming • b) Rearing period is 5-6 weeks only • c) More number of flocks can be taken in the same • shed • d) Broilers have high feed conversion efficiency i.e. the amount of feed required for unit body • weight gain is lower in comparison to other livestock • e) Faster return from the investment • f) Demand for poultry meat is more compared to sheep/goat meat
  59. 59. Thank you