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Bioleaching

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DEFINITION OF BIOLEACHING
MICROORGANISMS USED IN BIOLEACHING
CHEMISTRY OF BIOLEACHING

Publicado en: Ciencias
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Bioleaching

  1. 1.  DEFINITION OF BIOLEACHING  MICROORGANISMS USED IN BIOLEACHING  CHEMISTRY OF BIOLEACHING  TYPES  EXAMPLES 1. COPPER LEACHING 2. URANIUM LEACHING 3. GOLD AND SILVER LEACHING 4. SILICA LEACHING
  2. 2. Bioleaching is the process by which metals are dissolved from ore bearing rocks using microorganisms.
  3. 3. The most commonly used microorganisms in bioleaching are; o Thiobacillus thiooxidants o Thiobacillus ferrooxidants other microorganisms which may also be used are; Bacillus Licheniformis, B. luteus, B megaterium, B polymyxa, B leptospirillum ferrooxidants, Pseudomonas flurescens, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, etc;
  4. 4.  Thiobacillus thiooxidant and T. ferrooxidants have always been found to be present on the leaching dump  The specie of thiobacillus is most extensively studied gram –ve bacteria which derives energy from oxidation of fe2  The reactions mechanisms are two types, i.e., • Direct bacterial leaching • Indirect bacterial leaching
  5. 5.  Direct bacterial leaching in this process, a physical contact exist between bacteria and ores and oxidation of minerals takes place though enzymatically catalysed steps ex; pyrite is oxidised to ferric sulphate 2FeS2+7O2+2H2O  2FeSo4+2H2So4
  6. 6.  Indirect bacterial leaching in this process the microbes are not in direct contact with minerals, but leaching agents are produced by these microbes which oxidize the ores.
  7. 7. There are three commercial process used in bioleaching; a. Slope leaching b. Heap leaching c. In situ leaching
  8. 8.  Here the ores are first ground to get fine pieces and then dumped into large leaching dump  Water containing inoculum of thiobacillus is continuously sprinkled over the ore  Water is collected from the bottom and used to extract metals and generate bacteria in an oxidation pond
  9. 9.  Here the ore is dumped into large heaps called leach heaps Water containing inoculum of thiobacillus is continuously sprinkled over the ore Water is collected from the bottom and used to extract metal and generate bacteria in an oxidation pond
  10. 10.  In this process the ore remains in its original position in earth.  Surface blasting of earth is done to increase the permeability of water.  Water containing thiobacillus is pumped through drilled passages to the ores  Acidic water seeps through the rock and collects at bottom
  11. 11.  Again, water is pumped from bottom  Mineral is extracted and water is reused after generation of bacteria
  12. 12. Ores of copper from which copper is recovered are,  Chalcocite(Cu2S)  Chalcopyrite(CuFeS2)  Covellite(CuS)
  13. 13.  Copper leaching is operated as simple heap leaching and in situ leaching process  Dilute sulphuric acid is percolated down through the pile  Liquid coming out of bottom of pile reach in mineral  Liquid is collected and transported to precipitation plant  Metal is precipitated an purified
  14. 14.  Chalcocite is oxidized to soluble form of copper Cu2S+O2+  CuS+Cu2+ +H2O  Thereafter chemical reactions occur, i.e. CuS+8Fe +4H2O  Cu+8Fe+SO4+8H Copper is removed, Fe0+CuCu+Fe2+ Fe2+ is transferred to oxidation pond Fe+1/4(O2)+H+Fe3+ +1/2(H2O)
  15. 15.  Fe3+ ions produced is an oxidation of ore  It is pumped back to pile  Sulphuric acid is added to maintain pH
  16. 16.  Uranium is extracted when insoluble tetravalent uranium is oxidized with a hot H2So4/FeSo4 solution to make hexavalent uranium sulphate  pH required for the reaction is 1.5-3.5  Temperature: around 35 degree C following reaction takes place, U2O+Fe2(SO4)3  UO2SO4+2FeSO4
  17. 17.  Uranium leaching is an indirect process  When T.ferrooxidants are involved in uranium extraction, they do not directly attack on ore but on the iron oxidants.  The pyrite reaction is used for the initial production of Fe Reaction; 2FeS+H2O+7 ½[O2]  Fe2[SO4]3+ H2SO4
  18. 18.  Microbial leaching of refractory process metal ores to enhance gold and silver recovery is one of the promising applications  Gold is obtained through bioleaching of arsenopyrite/pyrite  Silver is also obtained by bioleaching of arsenopyrite but it is more readily solubilized than gold during microbial leaching of iron sulphide.
  19. 19. Ores of silica  Magnesite  Bauxite  Dolomite  Basalt  Mohanty et al.,(1990) isolated Bacillus licheniformis from magnesite ore deposits  Later, it was shown to be associated with bioleaching, concomitant mineralysis and silican uptake by the bacterium
  20. 20. Thank you

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