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Value-based Education: Findings of the Baseline Study in Kwale and Mombasa, 2017

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This presentation was made by Dr Sheila Wamahiu, Director Jaslika Consulting, at a Stakeholders Forum in Mombasa on 14 September, 2017. At the Forum, she shared the findings of the baseline study was disseminated. Supported by the Aga Khan Foundation, East Africa in partnership with Porticus and the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development. The Forum drew participants from different counties of the coastal region.

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Value-based Education: Findings of the Baseline Study in Kwale and Mombasa, 2017

  1. 1. Value-based Education Findings of the Baseline Study in Kwale & Mombasa, 2017
  2. 2. Presenter and research lead: Dr Sheila Parvyn Wamahiu, Director Jaslika Consulting
  3. 3. Commissioned by the Aga Khan Foundation East Africa in partnership with Porticus & the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD)
  4. 4. What is the connection between these images? The common denominator?
  5. 5. The study problem: Status of values teaching in primary & secondary schools ● Understanding of values. ● Prioritization of values ● Impact on attitudes & behavior ● Values teaching & nurturance Desk Review Observations Survey560(53:47B:G) Qualitative191(54:46B:G)
  6. 6. The research participants Diverse actors in school and out in the communities Learners – primary & secondary Teachers Head teachers Communities (parents, leaders) Youth group members
  7. 7. The findings ● Understanding of values  General understanding of values but different interpretations.  9 in 10 learners able to explain meaning of values  Child, community leaders articulated meaning of values clearly  Less clarity among teachers The Findings
  8. 8. “Behaviour that does not harm, Kindness”--- Club leaders Good behavior, manners, habits Meaning 1 Values = positive = virtues Negative values = vices Meaning 2 Meaning 3 Something worthwhile
  9. 9. The findings ●Pupil 1: Giraffe does not love her children. ●Facilitator: Why do you think so? ●Pupil 2: Because she is carrying the bird while her children are walking. ●Pupil 3: The bird is tired, that is why it is being carried … ●Pupil 4: The animals are friends. ●Pupil 5: The bird is small that is why it is being carried by the giraffe. The Findings
  10. 10. Prioritisation of values as Expected Respect Responsibility Love Discipline Unity
  11. 11. Missing Value 1 Diversity Missing Value 2 Tolerance Missing Value 3 Inclusiveness Missing Value 4 Justice Missing Value 5 Non-Discrimination However, critical values missing/barely mentioned
  12. 12. Missing Value 6 Equality Missing Value 7 Equity: Missing Value 8 Integrity Missing Value 9 Humility
  13. 13. Approaches and Methods ●Recognition that curriculum subjects important carriers of values ●Most frequently mentioned subjects Religious Education, Life Skills Education, History & Languages ●No consensus among teachers on whether values embedded in all subjects, or in all topics in any particular subject, or only in some subjects
  14. 14. Teacher: Now what lessons do we learn from John the Baptist’s teachings? [A girl from front responds] Female Learner1 [FL]: It teaches us not to bribe or accept bribe and be helpful to the needy.’ Teacher: Okay! Any other? Another FL1 attempts with a hand raised: We should be honest. He taught against hypocrisy. The soldiers were not sincere. He talked about not being judgmental. Teacher: What are the characteristics of God? FL2: He is omnipresent, loving God and is merciful. Teacher: Good clap for her. In fact this is evident when God forgives Adam and Eve and gave them clothes when they had sinned and were naked. All people should therefore be loving, and show mercy even to those who offend them.
  15. 15. Co-curricular activities ●1 in 4 secondary school learners identified co-curricular activities ●Teachers and heads singled out games and sports ●Heads also mentioned debates but not music ●Clubs also mentioned
  16. 16. Secondary learners perspectives on methods used to “teach” selected values
  17. 17. Teachers on Punishment & Reward to “Teach” Values ●Respect, Responsibility, Love, Unity, Equity, Equality, Humility, Inclusiveness, Diversity, Equality, Non-discrimination, Justice, Freedom, Tolerance ●Sharing, Team work, Patience,, Confidence, Honesty ●Justice, Responsibility, Unity, Love, Integrity, Freedom, Equality, Equity, Non-discrimination, Peace, Humility ●Appreciation, Self esteem, Self expression, Independence, Accountability
  18. 18. Community Groups more interactive, creative in reaching out to target groups – values “inculcated”, “nurtured” not taught Discussant 3: Yes, Behaviour Change Communication - that one. So that we need to put it in this community because it needs to change you. Like even the government try to eradicate malaria by bringing nets but you get that people say that these nets are talking, and the people insist that these nets are killing people. So we need to remove that society that does not know and have the one that understands. Discussant 7: I liked the teachings about the nets, like you see most people used to say that this rectangular nets talk at night. Interviewer: So what made people start thinking that those nets talk? Discussant 2: It was just propaganda that just comes. Discussant 7: And they hated them. They could be given at the clinic and they throw away. Discussant 1: So that is when we thought of using drama to educate them
  19. 19. Missed opportunities for nurturance of values in schools Compartmentalization of efforts Little or no synergy between existing initiatives in and out of school to reinforce and nurture values Critical capacity gaps In school heads, teachers, parents and community members to understand, communicate, practice and nurture positive values either in themselves or the young Silence on pluralistic values Public schools generally not wired to promoting pluralistic ideals embedded in the Kenyan Constitution, policy papers and the reformed curriculum framework.
  20. 20. Take Away Points Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt Make an early start Involve all stakeholders Use existing structures
  21. 21. What should we do? Invest in quality teacher training and support Build consensus and understanding on core values Use of activity centered, child friendly pedagogy Holistic approach Integration of values Positive alternatives to punitive reinforcement – intrinsic rather than extrinsic Invest in development of teaching-learning materials/resources Story books, pictorials, animations/cartoons
  22. 22. What should we do? Invest in community empowerment Involve community leaders Work through community work groups to reach out Common understanding of values Change perceptions (e.g. negative mention by small children) Invest in breaking walls that divide Within schools Between schools and community
  23. 23. The final words “A child with good values has peace and tends to do well at school” “People with poor values like drunks, thieves, drug users tend to live in fear of being caught.” Varied community leaders Education without values, science without ethics---dangerous, destructive and not sustainable

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