How to use your Qualitative Data…
Qualitative Research Analysis <ul><li>Transcribe audio or video tapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully and Individually review...
Examples <ul><li>VP Marketing for the Montreal Canadiens (NHL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It is the strongest sports brand in...
Examples <ul><li>Sport Equipment manufacturer and distributor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>«The team has not changed their jerse...
Measurement <ul><li>Measurement is “the assignment of numbers to observations [or responses] according to some set of rule...
Measurement Levels <ul><li>Nominal </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinal  </li></ul><ul><li>Interval </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio  </li></ul>
Nominal-Scaled Responses <ul><li>Numbers forming a nominal scale are no more than labels used solely to identify different...
Nominal-Scaled Responses (Cont’d) <ul><li>Which one of the following media influences your purchasing decisions the most? ...
Central Tendency –  Mode <ul><li>The Mode is the most frequent category - only statistics applicable to nominal variable <...
Ordinal-Scaled Responses <ul><li>An ordinal scale is more powerful than a nominal scale in that the numbers possess the pr...
Mode and Median <ul><li>The Mode and the Median are the most meaningful measures of central tendency for ordinal-scaled re...
Consider the following distribution of responses to the question about reading newspapers: In this case the mode is catego...
Interval-Scaled Responses <ul><li>An interval scale has all the properties of an ordinal scale and the differences between...
Interval-Scaled Responses (Cont’d) <ul><li>How likely are you to buy a new automobile within the next six months?  </li></...
Exhibit 9.1 Impact of Arbitrariness of an Interval Scale’s Starting Point
Ratio-Scaled Responses <ul><li>Ratio scales possess all the properties of an interval scale and the ratios of numbers on t...
Attitudes <ul><li>Attitudes are similar to beliefs, except that they also involve respondents’ evaluative judgments </li><...
Attitudes – Conceptually and Operationally <ul><li>A conceptual definition of attitude may be “a predisposition to respond...
Self-report Measurements of Attitudes <ul><li>This method involves asking respondents relatively direct questions concerni...
Graphic Formats <ul><li>A graphic rating scale presents a continuum, in the form of a straight line, along which a theoret...
Exhibit 9.3 Semantic-Differential Scale Items
Exhibit 9.4 Pictorial Profiles Based on Semantic-Differential Ratings
Exhibit 9.2 Rating Scales with Picture Labels (a) I didn’t like it at all I liked it a lot I liked it a little (b) Really ...
Itemized Formats <ul><li>Itemized rating scales have a set of distinct response categories </li></ul><ul><li>Any suggestio...
Itemized Formats (Cont’d)
Unbalanced Response Choices <ul><li>An unbalanced rating scale that can be used if respondents’ opinions about a subject a...
Labeled and Unlabeled Response Choices
Number of Scale Positions <ul><li>A scale with a large number of positions will not be meaningful if respondents are unabl...
Constant Sum Scale
Table 9.2 Likert Scale Items 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ The auction site support  syst...
Strengths Of Multiple-Item Scales <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul>
Validity <ul><li>The validity of a scale is the extent to which it is a true reflection of the underlying variable it is a...
Reliability <ul><li>Reliability measures how consistent or stable the ratings generated by the scale are likely to be </li...
Questionnaire <ul><li>A set of questions designed to generate the data necessary for accomplishing a research project's ob...
Questionnaire's Impact  o n Data Accuracy <ul><li>It must communicate to the respondent what the researcher is asking for ...
Sources of Distortion  <ul><li>A sloppy questionnaire can lead to a great deal of distortion  </li></ul><ul><li>The entry ...
Exhibit 10.2 The  Questionnaire Design Process Check question relevance and wording Check sequencing of questions Prepare ...
Question Form <ul><li>Nonstructured questions  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O pen-ended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured questio...
Nonstructured Questions <ul><li>Consider the following illustrative questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How old are you?______...
Structured Questions <ul><li>In which of the following categories does your age fall? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_______ Less t...
Response Category Sequence  <ul><li>Approximately how many long-distance telephone calls do you make per week? </li></ul><...
Response Category Content  <ul><li>Response choices  should be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collectively exhaustive  </li></ul></...
Response Category <ul><li>The response choices are collectively exhaustive but not mutually exclusive </li></ul><ul><li>On...
Response Category <ul><li>What do you like about Bank of America’s online banking service? </li></ul><ul><li>____24 hour s...
Response Category  (Cont’d) <ul><li>Modify the question to read, &quot;Which one of the following do you like most about B...
Will the Respondent Answer the Question? <ul><li>Questions about personal financial matters or sexual behavior are example...
Double-Barreled Questions <ul><li>Suppose the following question is to be used in conducting a survey of the general publi...
Avoiding  Double-Barreled Questions <ul><li>This revision is usually accomplished by breaking one question up into several...
Leading Questions <ul><li>Don't you think offshore drilling for oil is environmentally unsound? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___Y...
Avoiding Leading Questions <ul><li>The two leading questions we saw earlier can be modified for neutrality as follows </li...
One-Sided Questions <ul><li>Would you agree that the deregulation of  the airline industry has benefited customers? </li><...
Avoiding One-sided Questions <ul><li>Do you feel the deregulation of the airline industry… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___Has be...
Unbalanced Questions <ul><li>How important is price to you in buying a new car? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___More important th...
Balanced Questions <ul><li>How important is price to you in buying a new car? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___Very important  </l...
Avoiding  Questions with Implicit Assumptions <ul><li>Are you favorable, indifferent, or unfavorable toward a 10% increase...
Guarding Against Errors <ul><li>How often do you eat eggs for breakfast? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_____ Frequently </li></ul>...
Guarding Against Errors <ul><li>To guard errors due to misinterpretations , the above question can be revised as:  </li></...
Complex Questions <ul><li>In which of the following do you typically invest your liquid assets? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___I...
Position of Demographic and Sensitive Questions <ul><li>Respondents' personal or demographic characteristics , i.e a ge , ...
Arrangement of Related Questions <ul><li>Cluster questions that focus on the same topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a survey ...
Funnel Sequences <ul><li>Which of the following types of TV shows do you watch? (Check as many categories as apply.) </li>...
Funnel Sequences  (Cont’d) <ul><li>Which of the following specific shows did you watch during the past seven days? (Check ...
Questionnaire Appearance And Layout <ul><li>Version 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How old are you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
Pretesting <ul><li>Pretesting  is administering a questionnaire to a limited number of potential respondents and other ind...
Designing Cover Letters For Mail Questionnaires <ul><li>Primary Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To win the cooperation of re...
Exhibit 10.5  Illustrative Cover Letter and Key Features Personal Communication   Asking a favor   Importance of the resea...
Exhibit 10.5  Illustrative Cover Letter and Key Features  (Cont’d)
Exhibit 10.5  Illustrative Cover Letter and Key Features  (Cont’d)
Table 6.2 Comparison of Questionnaire Administration Methods Note:   The comparative rankings of the personal, telephone, ...
Openers for Personal and Telephone Interviews <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An appropriate salutation, such as &q...
Openers for Personal and Telephone Interviews  (Cont’d) <ul><li>Features (Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An indication of h...
Writing a Questionnaire for International Markets <ul><li>Caution  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the s ame word can have di...
International Marketing Research <ul><li>First Step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A professional who is fluent in both the languag...
International Marketing Research  (Cont’d) <ul><li>Fourth Step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The local language version should als...
International Marketing Research Egypt Saudi Arabia Israel Japan Columbia Brazil China France India Italy Germany Mexico C...
Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries Saudi Arabia The gender of the interviewer can have a strong impact on t...
Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) Israel Israel is a multilingual society that requires considera...
Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) Cont... In Brazil, directories are unreliable because phone lin...
Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) Cont... Traditional methods such as door-to-door,central locati...
Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) France French people like to answer surveys; they feel that the...
Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) Italy Business practices are different from those in the United...
Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) Cambodia Vietnam Vietnam and Cambodia have extremely high phone...
Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) Source: Compiled from a number of articles In Thailand, only 21...
Figure 1: Questionnaires to Critique—A Campus Admin Office Dear Valued Customer, To assist us in maintaining the highest p...
Figure 2: A Big Drug Store Excellent Average Poor Overall how would you grade this store? Please check one:        Our ...
Figure 3: A Travel Agency Please help us maintain our high standards of quality by answering the following questions. On t...
Figure 4: A Big Hotel Chain <ul><li>Please take a moment to share your thoughts with us. We value your business and thank ...
Figure 5: A Fancy Pen Online/Catalog Company Dear Customer, This order comes with a string attached: your satisfaction. Ou...
Figure 6: YuppieHouseWares Customer Service If you ordered by phone The Phone Representative’s courtesy and professionalis...
Figure 7: A Car Dealership I know you had a choice of where to service your vehicle and I would like to thank you for the ...
Figure 2: Premium Pizza Inc. Questionnaire <ul><li>(Approach shoppers who appear to be between the ages of 18 and 49 and s...
Figure 2, continued Very Very Poor 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10 Good Value Value Definitely Definitely Would  1  2  3  4 ...
Figure 2, continued 4 .  Please read the first coupon concept. Using a 10-point scale as show on the page above, how would...
Figure 2, continued <ul><li>7.  Please turn the page and read the next coupon concept. Ignoring the last coupon and using ...
Figure 2, continued 12.  How often do you eat at Premium Pizza ? (read answers, circle number) 1) Never visited Premium Pi...
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  1. 1. How to use your Qualitative Data…
  2. 2. Qualitative Research Analysis <ul><li>Transcribe audio or video tapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully and Individually review the written statements and visuals from interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>As a group, discuss the main findings and summarize them ( Always provide support to your claim through statements from the respondents ) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Examples <ul><li>VP Marketing for the Montreal Canadiens (NHL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It is the strongest sports brand in Canadian history…Our team represents the dreams and hopes of the people from Quebec…We have one of the nicest jerseys and logos in the NHL, Why would we change anything…” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Examples <ul><li>Sport Equipment manufacturer and distributor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>«The team has not changed their jersey for years. This means no new offering to the fans: the jersey they bought ten years ago is still good today. Furthermore, not changing the team jersey that is associated with the glory of the past is not coherent with today’s team performance on the ice, what the brand stands for and who their primary target is. It is alright to emphasize nostalgia when you are targeting older customers, but not when you are approaching younger customers, as the team is» </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Measurement <ul><li>Measurement is “the assignment of numbers to observations [or responses] according to some set of rules” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Measurement Levels <ul><li>Nominal </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinal </li></ul><ul><li>Interval </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nominal-Scaled Responses <ul><li>Numbers forming a nominal scale are no more than labels used solely to identify different categories of responses </li></ul><ul><li>Example: What is your sex? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Nominal-Scaled Responses (Cont’d) <ul><li>Which one of the following media influences your purchasing decisions the most? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Central Tendency – Mode <ul><li>The Mode is the most frequent category - only statistics applicable to nominal variable </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ordinal-Scaled Responses <ul><li>An ordinal scale is more powerful than a nominal scale in that the numbers possess the property of rank order </li></ul><ul><li>How long do you spend reading newspapers on a typical weekday? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 5 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 minutes to less than 15 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 minutes to less than 30 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 minutes or more </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Mode and Median <ul><li>The Mode and the Median are the most meaningful measures of central tendency for ordinal-scaled responses </li></ul><ul><li>Median – the category in which the 50th percentile response falls when all responses are arranged from lowest to highest (or vice versa) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Consider the following distribution of responses to the question about reading newspapers: In this case the mode is category 1 and the median is category 2
  13. 13. Interval-Scaled Responses <ul><li>An interval scale has all the properties of an ordinal scale and the differences between the scale values can be meaningfully interpreted </li></ul>
  14. 14. Interval-Scaled Responses (Cont’d) <ul><li>How likely are you to buy a new automobile within the next six months? </li></ul><ul><li>(Please check the most appropriate category.) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will definitely not buy _____ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (1) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely unlikely _____ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (2) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlikely _____ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (3) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likely _____ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (4) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely likely _____ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (5) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will definitely buy _____ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (6) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Exhibit 9.1 Impact of Arbitrariness of an Interval Scale’s Starting Point
  16. 16. Ratio-Scaled Responses <ul><li>Ratio scales possess all the properties of an interval scale and the ratios of numbers on these scales have meaningful interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>What is your annual income before taxes? </li></ul><ul><li>$______ </li></ul><ul><li>How far is your workplace from your home? ______ miles </li></ul>
  17. 17. Attitudes <ul><li>Attitudes are similar to beliefs, except that they also involve respondents’ evaluative judgments </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, do respondents feel print advertisements for cigarettes should be banned? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Attitudes – Conceptually and Operationally <ul><li>A conceptual definition of attitude may be “a predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to a stimulus object” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Self-report Measurements of Attitudes <ul><li>This method involves asking respondents relatively direct questions concerning attitudes toward whatever is of interest to the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>The questions are typically in the form of rating scales on which respondents check off appropriate positions that best reflect their feelings </li></ul>
  20. 20. Graphic Formats <ul><li>A graphic rating scale presents a continuum, in the form of a straight line, along which a theoretically infinite number of ratings are possible </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Indicate your overall opinion about eBay by placing a  mark at an appropriate position on the line below. </li></ul><ul><li>Very Very </li></ul><ul><li>Bad Good </li></ul>
  21. 21. Exhibit 9.3 Semantic-Differential Scale Items
  22. 22. Exhibit 9.4 Pictorial Profiles Based on Semantic-Differential Ratings
  23. 23. Exhibit 9.2 Rating Scales with Picture Labels (a) I didn’t like it at all I liked it a lot I liked it a little (b) Really h ated it Didn’t like it It’s ok Liked it Really liked it * * * ** * ** ** ** * ** How much did you like what you just saw?
  24. 24. Itemized Formats <ul><li>Itemized rating scales have a set of distinct response categories </li></ul><ul><li>Any suggestion of an attitude continuum underlying the categories is implicit </li></ul><ul><li>They essentially take the form of the multiple-category questions </li></ul>
  25. 25. Itemized Formats (Cont’d)
  26. 26. Unbalanced Response Choices <ul><li>An unbalanced rating scale that can be used if respondents’ opinions about a subject are anticipated to be predominantly positive </li></ul>
  27. 27. Labeled and Unlabeled Response Choices
  28. 28. Number of Scale Positions <ul><li>A scale with a large number of positions will not be meaningful if respondents are unable to make fine mental distinctions with respect to whatever is being measured </li></ul><ul><li>More precise measurements should result as the number of scale positions increase </li></ul>
  29. 29. Constant Sum Scale
  30. 30. Table 9.2 Likert Scale Items 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ The auction site support system is confusing ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ The auction site is not careful with personal information ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ The auction site responds to complaints quickly ________ ________ ________ Agree ________ ________ ________ Strongly Agree ________ ________ ________ The auction site commission is reasonable ________ ________ ________ User registration is complex at this site ________ ________ ________ The online auction site contains an abundance of exhibits Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree
  31. 31. Strengths Of Multiple-Item Scales <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul>
  32. 32. Validity <ul><li>The validity of a scale is the extent to which it is a true reflection of the underlying variable it is attempting to measure </li></ul>
  33. 33. Reliability <ul><li>Reliability measures how consistent or stable the ratings generated by the scale are likely to be </li></ul>
  34. 34. Questionnaire <ul><li>A set of questions designed to generate the data necessary for accomplishing a research project's objectives </li></ul>
  35. 35. Questionnaire's Impact o n Data Accuracy <ul><li>It must communicate to the respondent what the researcher is asking for </li></ul><ul><li>It must communicate to the researcher what the respondent has to say </li></ul>
  36. 36. Sources of Distortion <ul><li>A sloppy questionnaire can lead to a great deal of distortion </li></ul><ul><li>The entry of an intermediary , or the interviewer , into the communication channel can also distort the questionnaire </li></ul>
  37. 37. Exhibit 10.2 The Questionnaire Design Process Check question relevance and wording Check sequencing of questions Prepare final draft of the questionnaire Make changes suggested by the pretest Is another pretest needed? Translate data requirements into a rough questionnaire draft Revise the rough draft Check question form Check layout and appearance Make the necessary checks Pretest the rough draft Are any changes needed? Are any other checks to be made? Are any changes needed? Are any changes needed? Are any changes needed? No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  38. 38. Question Form <ul><li>Nonstructured questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O pen-ended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F ixed-response </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Nonstructured Questions <ul><li>Consider the following illustrative questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How old are you?___________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you like most about owning your own home? _____________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you please describe your thoughts about a person who shoplifts items from a grocery store to keep from going hungry? __________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>______________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>______________________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Structured Questions <ul><li>In which of the following categories does your age fall? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_______ Less than 18 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_______ 18 to 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_______ 31 to 45 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_______ 46 to 60 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_______ Over 60 </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Response Category Sequence <ul><li>Approximately how many long-distance telephone calls do you make per week? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>______ 0 to 1 call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>______ 2 to 3 calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>______ 4 to 5 calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>______ 6 to 7 calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>______ More than 7 calls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The response categories in this question follow a natural sequence </li></ul>
  42. 42. Response Category Content <ul><li>Response choices should be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collectively exhaustive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>taken together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutually exclusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not overlap </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Response Category <ul><li>The response choices are collectively exhaustive but not mutually exclusive </li></ul><ul><li>On the average, how many cans of cola do you drink per week </li></ul><ul><ul><li>____0 to 3 cans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>____3 to 6 cans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>____More than 6 cans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changing the 3 in the second category to a 4 will make the response choices mutually exclusive </li></ul>
  44. 44. Response Category <ul><li>What do you like about Bank of America’s online banking service? </li></ul><ul><li>____24 hour service </li></ul><ul><li>____Transaction privacy </li></ul><ul><li>____No need to travel – do it from home </li></ul><ul><li>____Paying bills online – no need to mail bills </li></ul><ul><li>____Other____(please specify) </li></ul><ul><li>What is wrong with this question ? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Response Category (Cont’d) <ul><li>Modify the question to read, &quot;Which one of the following do you like most about Bank of America’s Online Banking Service?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>With this revision each respondent would, or should, check only one response category </li></ul><ul><li>What do you like about Bank of America’s Online Banking Service? (Please check as many categories as apply.) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Will the Respondent Answer the Question? <ul><li>Questions about personal financial matters or sexual behavior are examples of sensitive questions </li></ul><ul><li>Words used in the questions should not ambiguous to the respondents </li></ul>
  47. 47. Double-Barreled Questions <ul><li>Suppose the following question is to be used in conducting a survey of the general public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you feel firms today are concerned about their employees and customers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_____ Yes _____ No _____ No opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A “no” response can be interpreted three different ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The respondent feels firms are concerned about neither employees nor customers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The respondent feels firms are concerned about employees but not customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The respondent feels firms are not concerned about employees although they are concerned about customers </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Avoiding Double-Barreled Questions <ul><li>This revision is usually accomplished by breaking one question up into several questions </li></ul><ul><li>Thus our illustrative question can be reworded as two separate questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you feel firms today are concerned about their employees? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___ Yes ___ No ___ No opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you feel firms today are concerned about their customers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ___ Yes ___ No ___ No opinion </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Leading Questions <ul><li>Don't you think offshore drilling for oil is environmentally unsound? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___Yes ___ No ___ No opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do you think the quality of products on the market today is as high as it used to be ten years ago? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___ Yes ___ No ___ No opinion </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Avoiding Leading Questions <ul><li>The two leading questions we saw earlier can be modified for neutrality as follows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your feeling about the environmental impact of offshore drilling for oil? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___ Offshore drilling is environmentally sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___ Offshore drilling is environmentally unsound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___ No opinion </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. One-Sided Questions <ul><li>Would you agree that the deregulation of the airline industry has benefited customers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___Yes ___ No ___ No opinion </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Avoiding One-sided Questions <ul><li>Do you feel the deregulation of the airline industry… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___Has benefited customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Has had no impact on customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Has hurt customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___No opinion </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Unbalanced Questions <ul><li>How important is price to you in buying a new car? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___More important than any other factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Extremely important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Somewhat important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Unimportant </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Balanced Questions <ul><li>How important is price to you in buying a new car? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___Very important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Relatively important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Neither important nor unimportant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Relatively unimportant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Very unimportant </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Avoiding Questions with Implicit Assumptions <ul><li>Are you favorable, indifferent, or unfavorable toward a 10% increase in city taxes? </li></ul><ul><li>___Favorable ___Indifferent ___ Unfavorable </li></ul><ul><li>The above question can be improved as: </li></ul><ul><li>Are you favorable, indifferent, or unfavorable toward a 10% increase in city taxes to repair potholes in the city's streets? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>______ Favorable_____Indifferent_____Unfavorable </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Guarding Against Errors <ul><li>How often do you eat eggs for breakfast? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_____ Frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_____ Occasionally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_____ Rarely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_____ Never </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Guarding Against Errors <ul><li>To guard errors due to misinterpretations , the above question can be revised as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On the average, how many days per week do you eat eggs for breakfast? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___ Every day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___ 5 or 6 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___ 3 or 4 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___ 1or 2 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___ Less than 1 day per week </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___ Never eat eggs for breakfast </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Complex Questions <ul><li>In which of the following do you typically invest your liquid assets? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___Insured accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Stock market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Insured accounts and stock market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___Other accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of the total number of miles you drove during the past month, approximately what percentage was traveled in driving to and from work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___Percent </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Position of Demographic and Sensitive Questions <ul><li>Respondents' personal or demographic characteristics , i.e a ge , e ducation level , or i ncome are placed at the end of the questionnaire </li></ul>
  60. 60. Arrangement of Related Questions <ul><li>Cluster questions that focus on the same topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a survey of business executives ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Views on the economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee turnover </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Grouping questions into meaningful clusters can increase respondents' ease in answering the questions and reduce the chance of response errors </li></ul>
  61. 61. Funnel Sequences <ul><li>Which of the following types of TV shows do you watch? (Check as many categories as apply.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>____ News shows ____ Quiz shows ____ Game shows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following types of TV shows do you like the most? (Check as many categories as apply.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>____ News shows ___ Quiz shows ____ Game shows </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Funnel Sequences (Cont’d) <ul><li>Which of the following specific shows did you watch during the past seven days? (Check &quot;yes&quot; or &quot;no&quot; for each show listed.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who Wants to be a Millionaire?___ Yes ___ No </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheel of Fortune ___ Yes ___ No </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CBS Evening News ___ Yes ___ No </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Questionnaire Appearance And Layout <ul><li>Version 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How old are you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___Less than 18 ___18 to 25 ___26 to 40 ___Over 40 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Version 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How old are you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___Less than 18 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___18 to 25 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___26 to 40 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___Over 40 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Pretesting <ul><li>Pretesting is administering a questionnaire to a limited number of potential respondents and other individuals capable of pointing out design flaws </li></ul>
  65. 65. Designing Cover Letters For Mail Questionnaires <ul><li>Primary Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To win the cooperation of respondents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A good cover letter should be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Exhibit 10.5 Illustrative Cover Letter and Key Features Personal Communication Asking a favor Importance of the research Importance of the Recipient Importance of the replies where the reader is not qualified to answer most questions How the recipient may benefit from this research 17 Importance of Sender’s organization
  67. 67. Exhibit 10.5 Illustrative Cover Letter and Key Features (Cont’d)
  68. 68. Exhibit 10.5 Illustrative Cover Letter and Key Features (Cont’d)
  69. 69. Table 6.2 Comparison of Questionnaire Administration Methods Note: The comparative rankings of the personal, telephone, and mail survey techniques implies by this table are not universal; exceptions to these rankings can and do occur, depending on specific circumstances surrounding a research situation. Ranking of Methods Criteria 1 2 3 4 Versatility Number of Questions Personal Mail Web Telephone Amount/variety of information Personal Telephone Web Mail Presentation of stimuli Personal Web Telephone Mail Time Web Telephone Personal Mail Cost Web Mail Telephone Personal Accuracy Sampling control Personal Telephone Mail Web Supervisory control Web Mail Telephone Personal Opportunity for clarification Personal Telephone Web Mail Respondent Convenience Web Mail Telephone Personal
  70. 70. Openers for Personal and Telephone Interviews <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An appropriate salutation, such as &quot;Good morning! I am Ralph Johnston with Marketing Research Associates Company.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A brief statement about the project and its purpose, such as &quot;We are conducting a survey of heads of household regarding their feelings about modern home appliances.” </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Openers for Personal and Telephone Interviews (Cont’d) <ul><li>Features (Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An indication of how long the interview might last, such as &quot;This survey should take no more than ten minutes.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A polite request for permission to conduct the interview, such as &quot;May I please talk to the male or female head of your household for a few minutes?&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Writing a Questionnaire for International Markets <ul><li>Caution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the s ame word can have different meanings in different cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Word Equivalence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Japan, China and non-English speaking European countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Very Satisfied” means “Somewhat Satisfied” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Very Satisfied” should be replaced by “Totally Satisfied” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  73. 73. International Marketing Research <ul><li>First Step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A professional who is fluent in both the languages should translate the original questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A different translator must translate the local language questionnaire back to the original version </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers should compare the original version and the translated original version to ensure that they are identical in meaning </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. International Marketing Research (Cont’d) <ul><li>Fourth Step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The local language version should also be checked by the marketing research professionals in the country of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fifth Step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The local language version should be pretested to make sure that the questionnaire serves the intended purpose </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. International Marketing Research Egypt Saudi Arabia Israel Japan Columbia Brazil China France India Italy Germany Mexico Cambodia Vietnam Thailand Singapore
  76. 76. Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries Saudi Arabia The gender of the interviewer can have a strong impact on the responses to questions In Saudi Arabia, the English word “macho” does not exist and there is not a similar word or phrase to support this concept The Japanese may not understand a letter-based performance measure as they generally use a 100-point scale for these purposes Japan
  77. 77. Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) Israel Israel is a multilingual society that requires consideration in the advent of surveys and interviews Egypt In Egypt, social and cultural factors, such as low literacy rate and low education levels, prevent the same techniques from being applied that would be used in the United States
  78. 78. Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) Cont... In Brazil, directories are unreliable because phone lines are bought and sold like commodities Brazil Columbia Respondents are often very cooperative, given a low level of telemarketing and the”surprise factor” of being called up from a distant location to answer a few questions about the local beer
  79. 79. Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) Cont... Traditional methods such as door-to-door,central locations, and focus groups remain the backbone of market research in China. More advanced techniques, such as omnibus studies and panels, are making inroads. Widespread use of computers is increasing the feasibility of e-mail surveys China India Telephone and mail surveys are rarely used due to inadequate telephone penetration(1% of households) and low literacy rates
  80. 80. Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) France French people like to answer surveys; they feel that they provide their opinion in order to produce a better product Germany Mall interviewing is limited due to the lack of shopping malls. Door-to-door interviewing is becoming more difficult in major cities due to crime. Panels are becoming more popular
  81. 81. Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) Italy Business practices are different from those in the United States. While a simple inquiry to someone’s employer would be considered a small thing in the United States, in Italy is equivalent to lodging a formal complaint Mexico Mexican consumers are relatively unfamiliar with the imagery used to market products in the United States. This is due to the fact that in the past, there was a limited product selection and even fewer advertisers differentiating their products
  82. 82. Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) Cambodia Vietnam Vietnam and Cambodia have extremely high phone rates. In Vietnam it is not uncommon to have 10 families in one building sharing one phone line In-person interviews are preferred as they allow the researcher to show the proper respect for the respondents
  83. 83. Potential Research Constraints in Other Countries (Cont’d) Source: Compiled from a number of articles In Thailand, only 21% of the population lives in urban areas and 2/3 if that population is located in one city, Bangkok Thailand Singapore A questionnaire to be administered in Singapore must have an English version as well as equivalent Malay, Hokkien, Mandarin, Tamil, and Cantonese versions
  84. 84. Figure 1: Questionnaires to Critique—A Campus Admin Office Dear Valued Customer, To assist us in maintaining the highest possible quality service to your department, please complete and return this card, rating performance on the services performed for you. Please feel free to make any other comments or suggestions. Thank you. Excellent Good Adequate Inadequate Unacceptable Quality      Timeliness      Price      Convenience      Overall service      Comments/ Suggestions: ________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Job Number: ____________ Date: ______________ Name (optional): ____________
  85. 85. Figure 2: A Big Drug Store Excellent Average Poor Overall how would you grade this store? Please check one:    Our pharmacy    Our check-out service    Our variety & selection    Our everyday prices    Our ad in stock    Our cleanliness    Our film processing    Our everyday in stock    Our people are friendly    & helpful Date of visit: __________ Time of day: __________ Your comments and concerns: ___________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________  I would like a reply  I don’t need a reply Name ______________ Address ____________ City________________ State__________ Zip_________ Phone_____________
  86. 86. Figure 3: A Travel Agency Please help us maintain our high standards of quality by answering the following questions. On this trip did we : Provide lowest applicable airfare? Yes No NA/DK Enter frequent flyer # w reservation? Yes No NA/DK Book the hotel you requested? Yes No NA/DK Reserve the type of care requested? Yes No NA/DK Provide confirmation numbers? Yes No NA/DK Provide travel documents on time? Yes No NA/DK Handle special requests and note on tix? Yes No NA/DK Provide accurate destination information? Yes No NA/DK How would you rate each of the following ? Excellent Good Fair Poor NA Courtesy of service? E G F P NA Extent to which your questions were answered? E G F P NA Manner in which our staff resolved any problems? E G F P NA Our overall service to you? E G F P NA On a scale of 0 to 100, if most travel agencies get an overall quality score of 80, what score would you give to our WorldZoom Travel Network? ____________
  87. 87. Figure 4: A Big Hotel Chain <ul><li>Please take a moment to share your thoughts with us. We value your business and thank you for your confidence in the ComfyStay Brand. Your feedback is greatly encouraged and appreciated. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall satisfaction with this ComfyStay </li></ul><ul><li>Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 high n/a </li></ul><ul><li>Likelihood you would recommend this ComfyStay </li></ul><ul><li>Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 high n/a </li></ul><ul><li>Likelihood, if returning to the area , you would return to this ComfyStay </li></ul><ul><li>Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 high n/a </li></ul><ul><li>Overall value for the price paid </li></ul><ul><li>Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 high n/a </li></ul><ul><li>Primary purpose of visit </li></ul><ul><li>Individual business </li></ul><ul><li>Convention/Meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>How many times have you been a guest at this ComfyStay? </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5+ </li></ul>Did you have a problem during your stay? Y N If yes, did you report it to the staff? Y N Was the problem resolved? Y N If yes, how did our staff measure against your expectations?  Exceeded  Met  Fell Below What was the nature of the problem? __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Room Number _____ Your name ____________ Hotel Name ________ Day phone ____________ Date of Stay________ continued:
  88. 88. Figure 5: A Fancy Pen Online/Catalog Company Dear Customer, This order comes with a string attached: your satisfaction. Our goal is to ensure that you’re 100% satisfied every time you shop with us. Would you mind taking a couple of minutes to tell us how we did? If there’s additional assistance we can offer, please call or email us anytime. Thank you for your business. We hope we met (or exceeded) your expectations. Sincerely, Moi Director of Customer Service (Phone, Email address listed here) Customer Satisfaction Survey 1. Was the merchandise what you expected? ___Yes ___No Here’s why: _________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Did you buy it as a gift? ___Yes, for this occasion_____________________ ___No 3. Will you oder from FancyPen again? ___Yes ___No Here’s why: ______________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 4. What are your three favorite stores or catalogs? ______________________ ____________________ ________________________ 5. Overall, how would you grad us on customer service?  A  B  C  D  F How can we make your experience with FancyPen more satisfying?__________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Thank you. Just drop this card in the mail—we’ll pay the postage.
  89. 89. Figure 6: YuppieHouseWares Customer Service If you ordered by phone The Phone Representative’s courtesy and professionalism  excellent  very good  satisfactory  needs improvement The ease and efficiency of the ordering process  excellent  very good  satisfactory  needs improvement If you spoke with a Product Specialist The Product Specialist’s courtesy and professionalism  excellent  very good  satisfactory  needs improvement The Product Specialist’s promptness in answering your inquiry  excellent  very good  satisfactory  needs improvement The value of the Product Specialist’s assistance to you  excellent  very good  satisfactory  needs improvement The ease and efficiency of ordering from the Product Specialist  excellent  very good  satisfactory  needs improvement If you ordered by mail or fax, the ease of following the instructions on the Order Form Delivery The arrival of your order compared with anticipated time of delivery  excellent  very good  satisfactory  needs improvement The appearance and condition of the packaging  excellent  very good  satisfactory  needs improvement The condition of the merchandise upon receipt  excellent  very good  satisfactory  needs improvement Merchandise Your initial reaction to the quality of the products you ordered  excellent  very good  satisfactory  needs improvement Your initial perception of the value received for the money spent  excellent  very good  satisfactory  needs improvement Just a few more questions Are you likely to purchase from YuppieHouseWares again? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ What additional services may we provide? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ If you could implement one change at YuppieHouseWares, what would it be? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ May we send our catalog to a friend? Please provide name and address: ______________________________________________________________________________________________ If you have a concern or question about your order, please call our Product Specialist at 1-800-etc..
  90. 90. Figure 7: A Car Dealership I know you had a choice of where to service your vehicle and I would like to thank you for the opportunity to earn your business. I also know that if I expect to build a strong customer base, I need to make sure that you are completely satisfied with your service experience here today. Below is a list of questions that may appear on a questionnaire from my dealership. Although some of them seem to rate our entire operation, in fact they all rate my personal performance and the scores become part of my permanent record. If you feel I have not earned all “5” or “Yes” ratings, please call and allow me the opportunity to correct any of my failures. F A I L I N G ! Highest Lowest 5 4 3 2 1 Promptness, courtesy writing your order:      Communication with Service Consultant      Knowledge and expertise      Treated in honest, straight forward manner      Amount of time spent with you      Understanding your service, repair request      Yes No Were service items requested completed?   Able to schedule appointment?   Vehicle available when promised?   Car washed, clean when you picked it up?   Was the work explained to your satisfaction?  
  91. 91. Figure 2: Premium Pizza Inc. Questionnaire <ul><li>(Approach shoppers who appear to be between the ages of 18 and 49 and say…) </li></ul><ul><li>Hi, I’m _______ from Midwest Research Services. Many companies like to know your preferences and opinions about new products and promotions. If you have about 5 minutes, I’d like to have your opinions in this marketing research study . </li></ul><ul><li>(If refused, terminate) </li></ul><ul><li>Have you eaten lunch or dinner in, or carried food away from, a fast-food restaurant in the last seven days ? …(must answer yes to continue) </li></ul><ul><li>Have you eaten restaurant pizza within the last 30 days, either at the restaurant or by having it delivered ?) …(must answer yes to continue) </li></ul><ul><li>Which age group are you in ? (read answers, circle number) 1: 18-24 2: 25-34 3: 35-49 4: other-terminate interview </li></ul><ul><li>I’m now going to show you five different coupon concepts and ask you 3 questions for each. Please respond to each coupon independently of the others. Look at the next coupon only when I ask you to . </li></ul>Response Number ____________ Coupon Book # ____________
  92. 92. Figure 2, continued Very Very Poor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Good Value Value Definitely Definitely Would 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Would Not Use Use COUPON PREMIUM PIZZA, INC.
  93. 93. Figure 2, continued 4 . Please read the first coupon concept. Using a 10-point scale as show on the page above, how would you rate this concept if 1 represents very poor value and 10 represents very good value ? (enter value): ______ Looking at the second scale, how would you rate this concept if 1 represents “definitely would not use” and 10 represents “definitely would use ”? (enter value): ______ Why did you respond as you did for use ? ______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 5. Please turn the page and read the next coupon concept. Ignoring the last coupon and using the same scale, how would you rate this concept in terms of value ? (enter value): _______ Referring to the second scale, how would you rate this concept in terms of your level of use ? (enter value): _______ Why did you respond as you did for use ? ______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 6. Please turn the page and read the next coupon concept. Ignoring the last coupon and using the same scale, how would you rate this concept in terms of value ? (enter value): _______ Referring to the second scale, how would you rate this concept in terms of your level of use ? (enter value): _______ Why did you respond as you did for use ? ______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________
  94. 94. Figure 2, continued <ul><li>7. Please turn the page and read the next coupon concept. Ignoring the last coupon and using the same scale, how would you rate this concept in terms of value ? (enter value): _______ </li></ul><ul><li>Referring to the second scale, how would you rate this concept in terms of your level of use ? (enter value): _______ </li></ul><ul><li>Why did you respond as you did for use ? ______________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>8. Please turn the page and read the next coupon concept. Ignoring the last coupon and using the same scale, how would you rate this concept in terms of value ? (enter value): _______ </li></ul><ul><li>Referring to the second scale, how would you rate this concept in terms of your level of use ? (enter value): _______ </li></ul><ul><li>Why did you respond as you did for use ? ______________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you. The following questions will help us classify the preceding information. </li></ul><ul><li>How many children do you have living at home ? (enter value): _______ (if answer is none, proceed to question 11) </li></ul><ul><li>What is the age of your youngest child ? (enter age): _______ </li></ul><ul><li>How often do you eat fast food for lunch or dinner ? (read answers, circle number): 1) Once per month or less 2) 2 to 3 times per month 3) Once or twice a week 4) More than twice a week </li></ul>
  95. 95. Figure 2, continued 12. How often do you eat at Premium Pizza ? (read answers, circle number) 1) Never visited Premium Pizza 2) Once per month or less 3) 2-3 times per month 4) Once a week or more (if answer is never, proceed to question 14) 13. Do you yourself usually buy whole pies or slices at Premium Pizza ? (circle one): 1) whole pies 2) slices 14. Have you used fast-food or restaurant coupons in the last 30 days ? (circle one): 1) yes 2) no 15. Have you ever used coupons for Premium Pizzas ? (read answers, circle number) 1) Never 2) I sometimes use them when I have them. 3) I always use them when I have them. 16. What is your marital status ? (read answers, circle number) 1) Single 2) Married 3) Divorced, Separated, Widowed 17. What is your occupation ? _________________________________________________ This is not a question for the respondent. Respondent was (circle one): 1 male 2 female Thank you for your participation. (Terminate interview at this time.)

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