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Concept of group dynamics What is group??? Types of group why people join groups?? Group Structure Theory of group formation Stages of group formation Principles of group dynamics Features of group dynamics Conclusion
It was founded by Kurt Lewin to study group decision, groupproductivity, group interaction, group cohesiveness and groupcommunication. The underlying assumption was that the laws of thegroup behavior can be established independently of the goals orspecific activities of group irrespective of the structure of the group. Group dynamics contains two terms: group and dynamics.Group is basically a collectivity of two or more persons. Dynamics comes fromGreek word meaning FORCE. Thus, “Group dynamics is concerned with the interactions of forces among group members in a social situation.”
Two or more people Shared goals GroupPeople see themselves As members There is interaction Among members
Group Formal InformalCommand Interest Task Friendship
The people often join groups since the groups give the members a stability and enhances their achievement capacity. The main reasons to join a group are: Have a sense of security Have a status Develop Self-esteem Power Goal achievement
Four different aspects of group structure are: Norms Roles Status Cohesiveness
Set of beleifs, feelings, and attitudes commonly shared bygroup members. These are also referred to as rules orstandards of behaviour that apply to group members. Normsserve three functions namely Predictive- basis for understanding Relational- some norms the behaviour of others define relationships Control- regulate the behaviour of others
Represents characteristics of group Basis for predicting and controlling behaviour of others Related to behaviours considered important for their grp They are applied to all memebrs.
-various parts played by group members.There are two elements that define this role identity- Role Perception-An individual is expected to behave according to his own perception in the group. Role Expectation-It is defined as how others believe one should behave in a given situation.
Status is “ a socially defined position or rank given to groups or groupmembers by others.” Group members get high status or low status in theGroup based on their authority and performance. High status members of the group have more freedom to deviate from the norms. This facility enables them to have the discriminatory powers in decision making. Low status members of the group should not have freedom to deviate from the norms as it leads to status inequality.
COHESION SOCIAL TASK the way in which skills andthe bonds of interpersonal abilities of the group attraction that link members mesh to allow group members optimal performance
Who won, and why?Did your group act like this… … Or like this? Groups with High Cohesiveness Get Better Results!
Low High Cohesiveness - Unity Cohesiveness - Negative Feelings - Interactive - More Problems - Positive Feelings - Less Productive - Ability to Cope with Problems - More Productive
Balance Theory:Propounded by “ Theodore New-Comb” which states that- “ Persons are attracted with one another on the basis of similar attitudes towards commonly relevant objectives and goals.”
Propounded by “ Thaibaunt and Kelly”. This theory is based on reward-cost outcomes of interaction between employees. The intraction between people is reward.
Stage V Stage IV Adjourning Performing Stage III Group Norming may Stage II Group disband Storming members Stage I Members either Members Work work after Forming come to Together towards meeting Members Resist developing Getting their goalsget to know Control by Close their jobs or becauseeach other & group Relationships done members set ground Leaders & & feelings of Leave Show rules Cohesiveness hostility
1 . The members of the group must have a strong sense of belonging to the group .The barrier between the leaders and to be led must be broken down. 2. The more attraction a group is to its members, the greater influence it would exercise on its members. 3. The grater the prestige of the group member in the eyes of the member in the eyes of the members , the grater influence he would exercise on the theme.
4.The successful efforts to change individuals sub parts of the group would result in making them confirm to the norms of the group. 5. The pressures for change when strong can be established in the group by creating a shared perception by the members for the need for the change.
Concerned with group Changes Rigidity or flexibility Continuous process
The groups operate on a common task and common attitudes. Thegroup dynamics is concerned with the interaction between the groupmembers in a social situation. This is concerned with the gaining in theknowledge of the group, how they develop and their effect on theindividual members and the organization in which they function. The group dynamics is essential to study since it helps to findhow the relationships are made within a group and how the forces actwithin the group members in a social setting. This helps to recognize theformation of group and how a group should be organized, lead andpromoted.
In 1980 , Richard semler joined SEMCO , founded by his father 27 years earlier, having 100 employees and manufacturing hydraulic pumps for ships, producing about $4million in revenue and tottered on the edge of bankruptcy. For the next 2 years, top managers constantly sought bank loans and fought off rumors that the company was about to sink. They also travelled 4 continents that enabled the company to reduce its cyclical marine business to 60% of total sales. Today SEMCO has many factories producing range of products like marine pumps, digital scanners, commercial dishwashers, truck filters and mixing equipment for substances ranging from bubble gum to rocket fuel. Customers include Alcoa,saab,general motors and SEMCO is regarded as one of the best company in Brazil to work for by press.
The company’s survival and ultimate success is due largely to a major change in its management approach. SEMCO emphasized on 3 fundamental values- democracy , information , profit sharing. These values helped in gaining confidence on work groups as a primary mechanism for managing the company. After some experimentations SEMCO found that they need 150 employees per factory and all are divided into 10 member group given a major responsibilities for outcomes associated with their areas. Costs rose up because of duplication of effort and lost economies of scale. within a year sales got doubled ,inventory dropped from126 to 46 days,8 new products appeared that had been tied up in R&D for 2 years and the product rejection rate at inspection dropped from 33 to 1% and increased productivity enabled the company to reduce the workforce by 32& through attrition and early retirement. At SEMCO once the members of a group agree on a monthly production schedule, they meet it . At end of the month every body has done their work allotted except for motors that had not yet arrived, despite repeated phone calls to the supplier. finally 2 employees went to the supplier’s plant and got delivery on the last day of the month and every one sat for the whole night till mng 4.45 and completed the assignment ( meat slicers)
work groups have access to important information like Balance Sheet,P&L analysis, cash flow statements for his or her division every month. All workers voluntarily attend monthly classes so that they can learn to read and understand the numbers. Another factor is that although top level managers are strict about meeting the financial targets, workers have wide latitude in determining the necessary actions and carrying them out. Profit sharing plan, twice a year employees receive about 25% of the after tax profits for their division. Employees vote on how to disburse the funds, which are visually distributed equally. A survey was conducted by college graduates by Brazilian magazine found that 25% of men and 13% of women cited SEMCO as the company they most wanted to work for.