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  1. CHAPTER 1 HISTORY AND SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY Universities Press 3-6-747/1/A & 3-6-754/1, Himayatnagar Hyderabad 500 029 (A.P.), India Email: Phone: 040-2766 5446/5447 Part I General Microbiology
  2. Dr Sonal Saxena, MD Director Professor and Head of the Department of Microbiology Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi and Dr Amala A Andrews, MD Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD
  3. INTRODUCTION Microbiology study of the following: Study of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses and prions) Response of human host to microbes and their antigens Normal flora—protects against pathogens and required for healthy life Microbiome—impact on human health and diseases UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD
  4. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND NOTABLE MILESTONES IN MICROBIOLOGY Antonie van Leeuwenhoek first observed microorganisms using ground lenses Ignaz Semmelweis discovered that puerperal sepsis is contagious and introduced the concept of antisepsis; he demonstrated the importance of hand washing Edward Jenner invented the smallpox vaccine UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  5. LOUIS PASTEUR UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD Laid the foundation for sterilisation methods, the steam steriliser, hot-air oven and autoclave Understood growth needs of different bacteria Obtained knowledge of anthrax Attenuated chicken cholera bacilli Developed vaccines for hydrophobia (rabies) and anthrax Coined the term ‘vaccine’ Proposed the germ theory of diseases
  6. ROBERT KOCH UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD Discovered tubercle bacilli and Vibrio cholerae Developed bacteriological techniques Conducted studies on anthrax bacillus Developed staining techniques Developed methods of obtaining pure culture of bacteria using solid media Koch’s postulates: Criteria for proving that a microorganism isolated from a diseased person or animal is causally related to the disease
  7. NOTABLE MILESTONES IN MICROBIOLOGY UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD Joseph Lister used carbolic acid for antiseptic surgery Roux and Yersin discovered Diphtheria toxin Paul Ehrlich studied toxin and antitoxin quantitation Ernst Ruska invented the electron microscope to visualise viruses Karl Landsteiner’s work on protein chemistry laid the foundation for immunochemistry Niels Jerne — Natural selection theory of antibody synthesis Frank Burnett — Clonal selection theory
  8. KOCH’S POSTULATES 1) The microorganism should be constantly associated with the lesions 2) Should be possible to isolate the organism in pure culture 3) Inoculation of pure culture should produce similar lesions in animal models 4) It should be possible to re-isolate the bacteria in pure culture from lesions produced in experimental animals Additional criterion: It should be possible to demonstrate specific antibodies to the microbe UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD
  9. MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY Major discoveries W Gilbert and F Sanger — Sequencing of DNA (1977) Kary Mullis — Polymerase chain reaction (1983) H. influenzae — 1st microbial whole genome sequence (1995) UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD
  10. Table 1.1 Some notable Nobel laureates and their contributions to the science of microbiology UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD Year Nobel laureate Work 1902 Ronal Ross Malaria 1905 Robert Koch Tuberculosis 1908 P Ehrlich and E Metchnikoff Immunity 1928 Charles Nicolle Typhus 1930 Karl Landsteiner Discovery of human blood groups 1945 A Fleming, E Boris Chain and Howard Walter Florey Penicillin 1951 Max Theiler Yellow fever 1952 Selman A Waksman Streptomycin 1954 Franklin Enders, T H Weller and F C Robbins Poliomyelitis growth in tissue 1960 F M Burnet and P B Medawar Acquired immunological tolerance
  11. Table 1.1 contd UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD Year Nobel laureate Work 1966 Peyton Rous Tumor-inducing viruses 1969 M Delbruck, A D Hershey and S E Luria Replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses 1975 D Baltimore, R Dulbecco and H Martin Temin Interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell 1976 Baruch S Blumberg and D Carleton Gajdusek New mechanisms of infectious disease dissemination and Australian antigen 1980 Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D Snell Immunological regulation by cell surface 1984 Niels K Jerne, Georges J F Kohler and Cesar Milstein Control of immune system and monoclonal antibodies 1987 Susumu Tonegawa Generation of antibody diversity 1989 J Micheal Bishop and Harold E Varmus Origin of retroviral oncogenes 1996 Peter C Doherty and Rolf M Zinkernagel Specificity in cell-mediated immune defense
  12. Table 1.1 contd UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD Year Nobel laureate Work 1997 Stanley B Prusiner Prions 2005 Barry J Marshall and J Robin Warren Discovery of Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease 2008 Harald Hausen and Francoise Barre-S and L Montagnier Human papilloma viruses and human immunodeficiency virus 2011 Bruce A Beutler, Jules A Hoffmann and Ralph M Steinman Activation of innate immunity and the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity 2015 William C Campbell and Satoshi Omura Discovery of a novel therapy against roundworm infection 2015 Youyou Tu Discovery of a novel therapy against malaria 2018 James P Allison and Tasuko Honjo Though not directly related to microbiology, their work explained the process of negative inhibition of immunity in cancer therapy
  13. ANTIBIOTIC ERA Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin (1928) Development of various antibiotics and vaccines followed Smallpox was eradicated (1980) Antibiotic resistance developed soon and has emerged as a global emergency UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD
  14. EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS Challenge in control of infectious diseases • 1300s: Black death (plague) in Europe and Asia • 1918: Spanish flu (H1N1 virus) • 1981: Discovery of AIDS (USA) • New and emerging infectious diseases appeared from time to time Recent ones • Zika virus: South America • MERS-CoV: Middle East • Nipah virus: Kerala, India • SARS-CoV-2: Wuhan, China UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD
  15. SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY Medical microbiology and its expanded role Pharmaceutical industry Food and dairy industry Agricultural industry Veterinary medicine and animal husbandry UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD
  16. MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY Diagnosis, prevention and control of infectious diseases Immunological studies and treatment of certain malignancies Infection control and prevention in healthcare facilities Recombinant DNA technology Genetic manipulation Molecular engineering UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD
  17. OTHER FIELDS Pharmaceutical industry: Development of drugs and vaccines Food and dairy industry: Yeasts for fermentation of certain foods and beverages Agricultural industry: Microbes are important for the fertility of soil and controlling plant infections Veterinary medicine and animal husbandry: Animal health and control of zoonotic infections transmitted from animals to humans UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD
  18. MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN INFECTIONS Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Helminthes Prions UNIVERSITIES PRESS PVT LTD  Not all microorganism-host interactions result in disease  Interplay of several factors determine whether disease develops or a balanced coexistence results