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EVS Biodiversity in India.pptx

  1. Biodiversity in India SAMEER ANSARI CSE (4TH SEM)
  2. WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? The term 'biodiversity' encompasses the variety of all life on earth. It is identified as the variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes of which they are part, including diversity within and between species and ecosystems. Quite simply it can be defined as “variety, variability, between genes, species and ecosystems”
  3. Significance of Biodiversity  Biological diversity has direct consumptive value in food, agriculture, medicine, industry.  It also has aesthetic and recreational value.  Biodiversity maintains ecological balance and continues evolutionary process.  The indirect ecosystem services provided through biodiversity are photosynthesis, pollination, transpiration, chemical cycling, nutrient cycling, soil maintenance, climate regulation, air, water system management, and waste treatment and pest control.
  4. I - Junction of different regions : Since India lies at the confluence of African, European and Indo-Malaysian region the biota, all of which contribute to the richness of the characteristic Indian biodiversity. II-Biogeographic Diversity in India: India has ten biogeographic regions : The Trans-Himalayan, The Himalayan, The Indian desert,The Semi-arid zone(s), The Western Ghats, The Deccan Peninsula, The Gangetic Plain, The Northeast India, The Islands and The Coasts III-Habitats and Ecosystems India has a diverse range of ecosystems.
  5. Flora and Fauna in India 1. There are about 45,000 species of plants, which is about 7% of world's total. About 33% of these are endemic. 2. There are 15,000 flowering plants, which is 6% of world's total. Roughly, 1,500 plant species are endangered. 3. There are 91,000 animal species, representing about 6.5% of world's fauna. These include 60,000 insect species, 2,456 fish species, 1,230 bird species, 372 mammals, over 440 reptiles and 200 amphibians with largest concentration in Western Ghats and 500 molluscs. 4. Livestock diversity is high. There are 400 breeds of sheep, 27 of cattle and 22 of goats found in India. 5. It has also globally important populations of some of Asia's rarest animals, such as the Bengal Fox, Asiatic Cheetah, Marbled Cat, Asiatic Lion, Indian Elephant, Asiatic Wild Ass, Indian Rhinoceros, Markhor, Gaur, Wild Asiatic Water Buffalo etc.
  6. Biodiversity Hot Spots in India Biodiversity hotspots are the areas with higher concentration of endemic species and which usually experience rapid rate of habitat modifications and loss.  India figured with two hotspots in an identification of 25 of the world's biologically richest and most threatened ecosystems. These 2 hotspots that extend into India are  the Western Ghats/Sri Lanka and  the Indo-Burma region (covering the Eastern Himalayas); and they are included amongst the top eight most important hotspots.
  7. Western Ghats  The Western Ghats - stretching some 1,600km from the north of Mumbai to the southern tip of India - are a biodiversity hotspot that contains a large proportion of the country's plant and animal species; many of which are only found here and nowhere else in the world.  Hosting the country’s largest population of Asian elephants as well as Bengal tigers, lion-tailed macaques , sloth bears and much more.
  8. Some Endemic Species of Western Ghats Indian Gaur Malabar Grey Hornbill Nilgiri Tahr Lion Tailed Macaque Nilgiri Langur Nilgiri Marten
  9. Eastern Himalayas  Himalayas is home to world’s highest mountains , including Mt. Everest. Abrupt rise in rise of mountains results in diversity of ecosystems that range from Alluvial grasslands and subtropical broad leaved forests to alpine meadows above the tree line. It’s a home to a variety of large birds, mammals, including tiger, elephants rhinos and wild water buffaloes.
  10. Some Endemic Species of Eastern Himalayas One Horned Rhinoceros Snow Leopard Chestnut Breasted Patridge Irrawaddy Squirrel Black Striped Weasel Indian Water Buffalo
  11. Major Threats to Biodiversity  1. Habitat Loss and Degradation:  2.Exploitation:Exploitation, including hunting, collecting, fisheries and fisheries by catch, and the impacts of trade in species and species’ parts, constitutes a major threat.  3.Alien Invasive Species:  4.Disturbance, persecution and uprooting, including deliberate eradication of species considered to be pests  5. Incidental take, particularly the drowning of aquatic reptiles and mammals in fishing nets  6. Disease, both exotic and endemic, exacerbated by the presence of large number of domestic livestock or introduced plant species  7. Limited distribution, which may compound the effects of other factors.
  12. Conservation of Biodiversity in India: Projects to conserve Wildlife:  Project Tiger: Project Tiger was launched by the Government of India with the support of WWF-International in 1973 and was the first such initiative aimed at protecting this key species and all its habitats.  Crocodile Conservation: The near extinction of crocodiles in the wild in the 1960s led to a Crocodile Breeding and Conservation Program was initiated in 1975 to protect the remaining population of crocodilians in their natural habitat.  Project Elephant: Project Elephant was launched in 1992 to ensure the long-term survival of a viable population of elephants in their natural habitats in north and northeastern India and south India. It is being implemented in 12 States