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Homogenous naturally occurring substancewith a definable internal structure is calledmineral. Minerals are found in varied forms in nature,ranging from the hardest diamond to the softesttalc. Minerals are usually found in “ores”.
Rocks are combination of homogenoussubstances called minerals. Some rocks for instance limestone, consist of asingle mineral only, but majority of the rockconsist of several minerals in varyingproportions.
Metallic mineral are those minerals which can be melted toobtain new products.
Non-metallic minerals are those which do not yield newproducts on melting.
Mining can result in a number of adverse effects onthe environment. Surface mining of coal completelyeliminates existing vegetation, destroys the geneticsoil profile, displaces or destroys wildlife andhabitat, degrades air quality, alters current land uses,and to some extent permanently changes the generaltopography of the area mined.
Mining companies can profitably extract most mineralsonly where they occur in large deposits. Industries firstdevelop the highest-grade and most easily minable ores.When these are depleted, mining companies turn to lower-grade and harder-to-mine ores. Many such depositsrequire advanced technology and large amounts of energyto mine. Some take so much energy to mine and refinethat they cannot be profitably developed. Deposits ofminerals are unevenly distributed around the world. Thisuneven distribution of minerals has played a major role inhistory.
Energy is a fundamental component to our daily lives, andeveryday we use energy or power in some form or another. Thelaw of conservation of energy states that energy can neither becreated or destroyed. What this means is that as energy is used, itdoes not disappear, but rather, is converted into another form ofenergy.