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Industrial revolution paris and london

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Industrial revolution paris and london

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Industrial revolution paris and london

  1. 1. Content • Industrialrevolution • The beginning of the revolution increase in cities population+ low life style +disease 1. Main characters (positives) mas production which lead to urban redesign for the cities 2. Main (negatives) disease 3. Effect on urban planning how the car changed the design and scale for the cities Case studies A-Paris 2. The growthof Paris from 508-2015 3. Haussmann renovation of Paris 4. Haussmann renovation of Paris(strategy) 5. boulevard definition 6. examples of the demolition of Haussmann  On the ile de city  Avenue l’opera 7. Public transportationin paris 8. Haussmann plans for the process ofrenovation. 9. Structural plan and the prosess • B-London 1. The great fire 1666 2. Sir Wrine plan for London (they did not use it) 3. The growthof London 1659-1950 4. The effect of the revolutiononLondon society 5. examples of the designof john Nash inLondon  Regent park & street design 6. London transportationsystem 7. London traffic zones & Congestioncharge 4. References
  2. 2. The city growthwas very slow, almost imperceptibleBEFORE THE REVOLUTION • Period fromabout 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. • transition to new manufacturing processes • transition fromhand production methods to machines • improvethe efficiency of water power • increasing use of steam power • The development of machine tools. • change fromwood and other bio-fuels to coal • increasing employment • increasethe Value of output and capital invested • THE USE OF CAR CHANGED THE URBAN FABRIC FOR THECITY. BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION  80% of people usedtolive in the suburbs &20% inthe cities but after the revolutionandincrease of jobs people immigrate tocities  The city designwas redesigned(strong renovation)  transportation Revolution 1- road network 2- A canal and waterway network 3- A railway network.  Raw materials and finished products could be 1- Moved more quickly 2- Cheaper than before. 3- Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly. DURING THE REVOLUTION Disadvantages Category Feature Why life for the laboring class Short Because of factories life for the laboring class worsethan slavery Capitalism Factories a dangerous place to work 70 hour weeks on a regular basis Housing for the workers overcrowded and unclean Low income High population low regulations Housing for the workers typhoid, cholera, and smallpox sick days, and forced themselves to work to providemoney Women & girls No time to clean house Work in factories as women Families Economic problem Paid too little • Europe, particularly England, industrial revolution. The growing industrialized city without design intent
  3. 3. Schinkel’s Englishtravel diary, 1826 Factory buildings inManchester and A market hall in Liverpool • Production, commerce, trade, anddistributionof goods expandedrapidly • New machines were thencreatedandlarge-scale productionbecame prevalent • More food and supplies became available sothe populationbeganto grow rapidly • Political aspect •The crown declines •The nobles and landlords decline •Industrial entrepreneurs emergesas powerful bodies • Different patternsof settlements starts regional plannin
  4. 4. Paris • THE GROWTH OF PARIS FROM 508-2015 1223 1589 1618 508 Gallo-Roman wall 1180. 1643. 1705. 1735. 1740. 1750 1870.1850 1900.
  5. 5. • HAUSSMANN RENOVATION OF PARIS Six reasons for the ‘Haussmannisation’Haussmann strategy for the renovation Haussmann concept Paris 1853–1870 The Haussmannisation  To make the capitalist instrumentof the city moreefficient by liberating its circulation (allowing for quicker and more efficient commerce)  to celebrate the monuments and glory of pastand presentempires by linking focalpoints with vistas;  to let in air, light and greenery for the bourgeoisie;  to push the poor elsewhere  to turn the boulevard into a social stage;  To usethe boulevard as a means of military control(fearing revolutionary uproar, the aim was that barricades could not be easily built any more, and soldiers would be able to shoot straightthrough the streets). Issues Demolishing old fortifications: the ‘rings’ around the cities: Increasing accessibility, cutting through the fabric: How to get enough ‘green’ into the city? Parks and public gardens &access  fresh water supply  a sewagesystem  Parks  Pavementfor many streets. By his ruthless cutting through the old city fabric to CHANGED PARIS INTO A MODERN CITY with everything the 19th century considered  Modern  broad straight boulevards,  greenery Hygiene. Haussmann's renovation of Paris strategy Paris is known for the NON-UNIFORMITY of its map. • The arrangement of ……. Streets……. alleys……. squares……. boulevards…….avenues • Is a result of a SUPERIMPOSITION of one street planuponan earlier street plan? • a PLOT OF LAND was usually dividedin a series of long and narrowparallel plots extending to both sides of a central lateral stripreservedfor apassage across it First phase Secondphase constructing Boulevards encirclea city center new avenues and streets avenues radiatefromthe center of the city Size 9.467 kilometers 26.294 kilometers Purpose Broughtair &Light & Healthiness Create circulation in a labyrinth that was constantly blocked and impenetrable to connect the interior of Paris with the ring of grand boulevards the new railroad stations Cost 278 million francs 180 million francs grow to 410 million
  6. 6. BOULEVARD DEFINITION A type of large roads. Usually running througha city. These roads often replacedobsolete fortifications. In modern Americanusage it oftenmeans a wide Multi-lane arterial thoroughare dividedwithamedian down the center. Withroadways along each side designedas slowtravel andparking lanes and for bicycle and pedestrian usage. Have an above-average quality of landscaping and scenery. EXAMPLES OF THE DEMOLITION AND RENOVATION OF HAUSSMANN 1853-1870 1-ON THE ÎLE DE LA CITÉ: The islandbecame an enormous constructionsite, Completely destroyedmost of the old streetsandneighborhoods. Two new streetswere alsobuilt, the boulevardduPalais and the rue de Lutèce. Two bridges, the point saint Michel andthe pont-au-Change were completely rebuilt Two new government buildings, the Tribunal deCommerce andthe Prefecture de a- Demolition of buildings on bridges b- Bridge building c- Demolition of buildingson shores, leaving an open view from the upper streets. d- Opening of the Boulevard de Sebastopol e- Opening of the Boulevard SaintMichel Paris,Champs Elyseeswestward Boulevard_Saint-Germain The Île de la Cité Transformedby Haussmann: transverse streets (red), public spaces (light blue) and buildings (dark blue).
  7. 7. 2-AVENUE DE L'OPERA Size and populationof Paris •Paris area in 1860 is 78km2 • Paris area in 1900 is 86.9km2 •Paris area in 1929 is 105km2 after adding Polonya forest. •Paris urban area in 2014 is 2300km2 PUBLIC TRANSPORTATIONIN PARIS 1. The horse-drawn omnibus became Paris' first form public transportation in 1828. 2. The horse-drawn tramway was next to appear in 1871 3. steam-driven trams appeared in 1880 4. replaced by the electric tramway in 1888.
  8. 8. The main streets Haussmann in 1853. First phase1853-1858 Rivoli nort e street Midwest proletarian center west el la bourgeoisie dual city Shanzelezah east west The main streets Haussmann in1853. Structural plan • the second phase (from 1858 to 1869) • was particularly from main links between • the center and the edges of the city. • The city had to pay considerably more for • this program itself, the final costs were also • two times higher than planned. •The third phase was presented by Haussmann in 1869 and focused in particular on the implementation of the city annexed territories in the west of the city. it was considered less important than the first HAUSSMANN PLANS FOR THE PROCESS OF RENOVATION.
  9. 9. • 1971 AvenuesandBoulevardsbrown,boulevardsandavenues that existedbefore Haussmann’stransformations/inblack, boulevardsandavenuesconstructedfollowingHaussmann’splan PARIS SUBURBS 1-The governmentof Francefocused on a new cities in the suburbs of Paris 2-new transportation systemfromthe center of Paris to the suburbs 3-diseasethe population of Paris 4-new industrialcities with economic power in the suburbs Boulevards and avenues • Scheme of the greenstructure of Pariswithlarge parks projected.
  10. 10. LONDON • THE GREAT FIREOF LONDON IN 1666 burnt for five days and destroyedmuchof the City of London and its timber buildings. • 80% of Londoner was destroyed. • SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN he completedaplan for rebuilding Londonand submittedit toKing Charles II. A combinationof • Renaissance planning and large-scale Frenchgardendesign. • The plan's central streets connect public squares and landmarks,while a narrower street gridfillsthe residual space. • The plan refusedbecause. • Rebuilding was financedby private enterprise. • The desire was torebuildquickly. • No heavy government involvement tocarve newroads across existing building plots and ancient routes • The properties ownersrefuse tolose their locations. • The King Charles II was afraid to lose his position. • Muchof the ancient layout of the City remained, but • Rebuilt inbrick and stone. • Twelve interconnecting squaresandpiazzas as the central designof the NewLondon. London 1643 fire areain London 1666 void from the fire 1666
  11. 11. London was transformed into the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population expanded from 1 millionin 1800 to6.7 million a century later. During this period, London became a global political, financial, andtrading capital London & other cities population. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IMPACT ON LONDON SOCIETY Georgian era from 1714-1837, the people thought in terms of status when describing their own place in society. The emphasis is on a person's birth, being directly linked to their relationship to the social hierarchy. Victorian era 1837-1901 The emphasis of a person's birth becomes less important to socialhierarchy. The new emphasis shifted to one's economic group. The industrialrevolution crushed the traditional Georgian society and contributed to the new Victorian society. The industrial revolution was the driving force behind socialchange between the 18th and 19th centuries. Itchanged nearly all aspects of life through • new inventions. • new legislation. • new economy. Change of Family structure The traditional marriageof the laboring class during the Georgian society, women would marry men of the samesocial status 1659 1750 1850 1950 LONDON CITY GROWTH FROM 1659-1950
  12. 12. Living Standards The IndustrialRevolution created terrible conditions, which had sparked the increaseof interest to health and specialized hospitals. Morethan 70 different specialized hospitals were founded from1800 to 1860 Improvements inTransportation Progress in the textile industry spurred other industrial improvements. The first such development, the steam engine, stemmed from the search for a cheap, Convenient sourceof power. As early as 1705, coalminers wereusing steam powered. LONDON, CA. 1800:PICTURESQUEPLANNING FOR THECITY, JOHN NASH VISION FOR REGENT PARK. The development of Regent’s Park and Regent Street to connect them with the centre of power and governmentat Westminster a mile away, was […] as much a productof marketforces as original design intent. As Nash’s vision of a dense development of terraces of houses arranged in a double circus at the heart of Regent’s Park gaveway to a handfulof generously spaced villas, an important prototype for the modern urban park as a public amenity came into existence thanks moreto lacklustre [=dull] housing-marketthan to civic-mindedness.” Regent StreetCumberlandTerrace, Marylebone
  13. 13. LONDON TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM Regent mosqe
  14. 14. – Metroand Light rail – 1.1 London Underground – 1.2 docklands Light Railway – 1.3 Tramlin – 1.1 LONDON UNDERGROUND -TUBE – Carrying nearly 50% of London's commuters, – the Tube is the most heavily usedmode of public transport inthe area. – the London Underground was the first rapid transit systeminthe world – begun operations in1863. – 3 millionpassengers travel init every day – 1 billionpassenger journeysper year – 1.2 docklands Light Railway –It serves Docklands area(east London) –101 millionpassengers ayear –1.3Trimlink –Light rail/tramsystemsouth London –It has 39 stations –it carriedover 28 millionpassengers2011 – up from 18 millionin2001 –The systemruns on its own right of way – mixeduse rails and withstreet traffic. –The network has connections with –the London Underground –the London Overground – the National Rail system •London Undergroundtube •London Undergroundtube map DocklandsLight Railway • Trim link • New Trim link design in london •
  15. 15. • 2 Heavy rail • 2.1 radial commuter railway • 2.2. London Overground • 2.3. Airport services • 2.4 operator • 2.5 national inter city • 2.6 international • 2.1 RADIAL COMMUTER RAILWAY • The majority of commuters TO central London (about 80% of 1.1 million) • arrive by either the Underground(400,000daily) • Or surface railway intothese termini (860,000 daily). • 2.2. LONDON OVERGROUND • metrosystemwithhigh-frequency services • around a circular route withradial branch lines • designedtoreduce stress fromthe INNER-CITY TUBE • By allowing commuters totravel ACROSS LONDON. • Without going through the central Zone 1. • 2.3. AIRPORTSERVICES • Heathrow Gatwick and Stanstedairports are servedby • dedicatedtrainservices • Standard commuter services. • 2.4 operator • a single systemownedand operatedby Transport for London • It’s a free market owned by different organizations tohave competition. • 2.5 national inter city Long-distance intercity services • do not depart from all termini Airport services • London Overground • •radial commuter railway Operator •
  16. 16. • but eachterminus provides trains toaparticular part of the country • 2.6 international • International services are providedwithintermediate stops. • This new link, brought intoservice on2007 cuts journey times by some 20–25 minutes compared withservices previously routedParis 2 hours 15 minutes fromLondon Brussels1 hour 51 minutes fromLondon • Road • 3.1 Major routes • 3.2 Distributor andminor routes • 3.3 Congestioncharge • London has a hierarchy of roads ranging from major radial and orbital trunk roads down to minor "side streets. • INTELLIGENTTECHNOLOGY, • which works in conjunctionwitha GPS, • enables drivers toselectanoptionwhere accelerationis stoppedautomatically at the speed limit specific toany road inLondon , • The unit can be disabledat the touchof a button • 3.1 MAJOR ROUTES • There are many major routes inLondon • There are also three ring roads linking these routes. • The innermost • the Inner Ring Road the congestioncharging zone inthe city center. • 3.2 DISTRIBUTOR AND MINOR ROUTES • The major roads are supplementedby a host of standardmain roads • They linkedsuburbs witheachother • deliver traffic fromthe ends of the major routes intothe city center. • These non-strategic roads only carry local traffic.
  17. 17. 3.3 CONGESTION CHARGE • a radical scheme to charge motorists £5 per day for driving vehicles • within a designated area of central London during peak hours • London Congestion Pricing • Abstract DATE ,February 2003 LOCATION ,city of London REGULATION charged a fee for driving private automobiles ZONEcentral area TIME during weekdays 7:00 amand 6:30 pm REASON to reduce traffic congestion EXEPTIONS motorcycles, 1. licensed taxis, 2. vehicles used by disabled people 3. some alternative fuel vehicles 4. buses 5. emergency vehicles 6. area residents receive a 90% discount on annual passes. Background • A basic economic principle is that consumers should pay directly for the costs they • impose as an incentive to use resources efficiently. • Urban traffic congestion is often cited as an example: • if road spaceis unpriced traffic volumes will increase until congestion limits further growth. Example • Singapore • California • Trondheim , Oslo, Bergen (Norway) Central London is particularly suitable for congestion pricing because of its limited road
  18. 18. • capacity (the streets network in the core area is hardly expanded) heavy travel demand result in severecongestion relatively good travel alternatives, including walking, taxi, bus and subway services, which are used by mosttravelers. ONLY ABOUT10% OF PEAK-PERIOD TRIPS WERE MADEBY PRIVATE AUTOMOBILE. (15%) discounts if the driver pay weekly or monthly If driver didn’t pay they sent a £80 fine. ‘This fine is reduced to £40 if paid within two weeks, and increases to £120 if not paid after a month Signs and Symbols Entering the Charging Area 4 CYCLING • Over one millionLondoners own bicycles but 2 per cent of all The Barclays Cycle Hire scheme at 2010 • Aims to provide 6,000 bicycles for rental. Center London congestion charging zone areaof extension main roads within chargingzone west London railway line areas boundaries
  19. 19. • Bikes are available at a number of docking stations inCentral London • Trade-off of benefits to harm for cycling incentral London: effects by age and sex, per million populations (althoughfewolder people usedcycle hire). Benefitscome throughimpacts on diseases relatedtophysical activity, harms come fromexposure toroad traffic injuries • 5 BUSES AND BUS RAPID TRANSIT • The reddouble-decker is internationally recognizedas Britishicon • every weekday carrying about six millionpassengers onover 700 different routes. • for local journeys, it carries more passengersthanthe Underground. • Also100-route night bus service is alsooperated, providing a24-hour service. • 6 TAXIS • The iconic black cab remains a common sight. • They are drivenby the only taxicabdrivers inthe worldwho have spent at least three years learning the city's road network togain • 6.2 HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES • More than 70 years after horse-drawncarriages wererestrictedfromthe West End, Westminster City Council has announcedthat it will consider supporting applications to reintroduce themfor sightseeing tours acrossthe city • 7 AIRPORTS • London is the best servedcity by airports inthe worldwithalmost 150 millionpassengers. • Heathrow • Gatwick • Stansted Proposal bike rout in London • Weekday journey bike rout in London • bike rout in London •
  20. 20. • Luton • London City • London SouthendAirport • 8.1 RIVER THAMES • the river was one of London's main transport arteries. • Althoughthis is no longer the case, • passenger services have seensomething of a revival since the creationin1999 of London River Services • 8.2 CANALS • These canals were originally built inthe Industrial Revolutionfor the transport of coal. raw materials andfoods. • Althoughthey now carry few goods, they are popular with • private narrow boat users and leisure cruisers • a regular "water bus"service operatesalong the Regent's Canal during the summer months. • 8.3 CARGO • Some bulk cargoes are carriedonthe Thames, this use. London's port used tobe the country's busiest whenit was locatedin Central London and east London's Docklands References • The Condition, Improvement and Town Planning of the City of Calcutta and contiguous area (by Richards report) • Hanson, Neil (2001). The Dreadful Judgement: The True Storyof the Great Fire of London. New York: Doubleday. For a review of Hanson's work, see Lauzanne, Alain. "Revue pluridisciplinaire du monde anglophone". Cercles. Retrieved 12 October 2006. • Hanson, Neil (2002). The Great Fire of London: In That Apocalyptic Year, 1666. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. A "substantially different" version of Hanson's The Dreadful Judgement (front matter). • Leasor, James (1961,2011). The Plague and the Fire. • Morgan, Kenneth O. (2000).Oxford Illustrated History of Britain. Oxford: Oxford. • Pepys, Samuel (1995). Robert Latham and William Matthews (eds.), ed. The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Vol. 7. London: Harper Collins. • First published between 1970 and 1983,by Bell & Hyman, London. Quotations from and details involving Pepys are taken from this standard, and copyright, edition. All web versions of the diaries are based on public domain 19th century editions
  21. 21. and unfortunately contain many errors, as the shorthand in which Pepys' diaries were originally written was not accurately transcribed until the pioneering work of Latham and Matthews. • Porter, Roy (1994). London: A Social History. Cambridge: Harvard. • Reddaway, T. F. (1940). The Rebuilding of London after the Great Fire. London: Jonathan Cape. • Transport in London From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia • T&E (2003),Congestion Pricing in London, A European Perspective, European Federation for Transport and Environment (www.te.nu/Factsheets/2003/14-2-03-CongestionBriefing.PDF • London Congestion Pricing Implications for Other Cities 24 November 2011 by Todd Litman Victoria Transport Policy Institute • Travel in London TfL. Retrieved 9 August 2014. • Martin, Andrew. Underground, Overground a Passenger's History of the Tube. London: Profile. • Transport for London (2011). Casualties in Greater London during 2009 and 2010 • Department for Transport, central government department overseeing the national railway network

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