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C++
C++
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C++ theory

  1. 1.  C++ is an extension to C Programming language. It was developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories in the early 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup. It is a deviation from traditional procedural languages in the sense that it follows object oriented programming (OOP) approach which is quite suitable for managing large and complex programs.
  2. 2.  Inheritance  Polymorphism  Encapsulation
  3. 3.  The capability of one class to inherit properties from another class as a child inherits some properties from his/her parents. The most important advantage of inheritance is code reusability. Once a base class is written and debugged, it can be used in various situations without having to redefine it or rewrite it. Reusing existing code saves time, money and efforts of writing the code again. Without redefining the old class, you can add new properties to desired class and redefine an inherited class member function.
  4. 4. vehicle 2 wheeler 4 wheeler honda Yamaha tata mahindra
  5. 5.  Encapsulation is the most basic concept of OOP. It is the way of combining both data and the functions that operate on that data under a single unit. The only way to access the data is provided by the functions (that are combined along with the data). These functions are considered as member functions in C++. It is not possible to access the data directly. If you want to reach the data item in an object, you call a member function in the object. It will read the data item and return the value to you. The data is hidden, so it is considered as safe and far away from accidental alternation. Data and its functions are said to be encapsulated into a single entity.
  6. 6. Private data Public data Calling object
  7. 7.  Polymorphism is a key to the power of OOP. It is the concept that supports the capability of data to be processed in more than one form.
  8. 8. What is your name??? amit sanjay prakash
  9. 9.  Pre processing directive.  Header files  Iostream.h  Input output stream header file.  Containing  Cin and cout menthod
  10. 10.  C++ is totally case sensitive language.
  11. 11.  cout<<“ welcome ”; ◦ cout = method ◦ << = operator ◦ “welcome “ = content to write ◦ ; = statement termination
  12. 12.  Int k;  cin>>k; ◦ cin = method ◦ >> = operator ◦ k = variable name to store data ◦ ; = statement termination
  13. 13.  int I,j,k,l,m;  cin>>I>>j>>k>>l>>m; ◦ On Screen : 10 20 30 40 50 ◦ On memory  i = 10  j = 20  k = 30  l = 40  m = 50
  14. 14.  #include<iostream.h>  #include<conio.h>  #include<stdio.h>  Void main()  { ◦ Clrscr(); ◦ Cout<<“my first program in c++”; ◦ Getch();  }
  15. 15.  Registered and reserved words of c++ are known as a key word.  Not use to create variables.
  16. 16. List of Keywords  asm double new switch  auto else operator template  break enum private this  case extern protected try  catch float public typedef  char for register union  class friend return unsigned  const goto short virtual  continue if signed void  default inline sizeof volatile  delete int static while  do long struct
  17. 17.  Brackets [ ] opening and closing brackets indicate single and multidimensional array subscript.  Parentheses ( ) opening and closing brackets indicate functions calls, function parameters for grouping expressions etc.  Braces { } opening and closing braces indicate the start and end of a compound statement.  Comma , it is used as a separator in a function argument list.  Semicolon ; it is used as a statement terminator.  Colon : it indicates a labelled statement or conditional operator symbol.  Asterisk * it is used in pointer declaration or as multiplication operator.  Equal sign = it is used as an assignment operator.  Pound sign # it is used as pre-processor directive.
  18. 18.  Char  Integer  Float  Double  Boolean
  19. 19.  If condition  If else condition  If else if condition  Switch case  Break statement  Continue statement
  20. 20.  If(condition)  { ◦ Executable part  }
  21. 21.  If(condition) { execute when condition ins true } else { execute when condition is false }
  22. 22.  If(condition 1) { execute if condition is true } else if( condition 2) { execute when condition 1 is false and condition 2 is true }
  23. 23.  Switch(parameter)  { ◦ Case (condition): ◦ { ◦ executable part; ◦ Break; } ◦ Case (condition): ◦ { ◦ executable part; ◦ Break; }  }
  24. 24. Entry control loop •For loop •While loop Exit control loop •Do while loop
  25. 25.  While(condition)  { ◦ Executable part ◦ Increment / decrement;  }
  26. 26.  Do  { ◦ Executable part; ◦ Increment / decrement  }while(condition);
  27. 27. For(initialization;condition;increment/decrement) { ◦ Executable part  }
  28. 28.  Arithmetic  Logical  Conditional  Relational  Increment / decrement  Special  Assignment  Urinary / short hand
  29. 29.  + ( summation )  - ( subtraction )  / ( division )  * ( multiplication )  % ( modulation )
  30. 30.  || ( or sign )  && ( and sign )  ! ( not sign )
  31. 31. Condition 1 Condition 2 Result True False False False True False False False False True True True
  32. 32. Condition 1 Condition 2 Result True False True False True true False False False True True True
  33. 33. Condition 1 condition 2 Result True False False False True False False False True True True False
  34. 34.  > ( greater than)  < ( less than)  >= ( greater than equal)  <= ( less than equal )  == ( equals to )  != ( not equals )
  35. 35.  (condition? true: false) , ( comma operator ) Ex. int a, b, c;
  36. 36.  ++  --  Pre increment / decrement ◦ ++ Variable name ◦ -- variable name  Post increment / decrement ◦ variable name ++ ◦ variable name --
  37. 37.  Variable name +=  Variable name +-  Variable name +/  Variable name +*  Variable name +%
  38. 38.  Ex  cout<<“string 1” << “string 2” ;
  39. 39.  All the statement of c ++ are terminated by ◦ ; ◦ (semi colon )
  40. 40.  String functions  Math functions  Character functions
  41. 41.  Header file ◦ String.h Functions strlen strrev strcpy strcmp strupr strlwr
  42. 42.  Header file ◦ math.h Min Max Round Sqrt Abs Floor Ceil
  43. 43.  Header file ◦ Ctype.h ◦ Getch ◦ Getche ◦ Isdigit ◦ Isalpha ◦ Isalnum ◦ Isspace
  44. 44.  Define in main four type.  No parameter no return value  No parameter with return value  With parameter no return  With parameter with return
  45. 45.  Abc()  Void Abc()  { ◦ Executable part  }
  46. 46.  Int I = abc();  Int abc() { return 5; } note : value of I = 5
  47. 47.  Abc(5,10);  Void Abc(a,b)  { ◦ Cout<<5+10;  }
  48. 48.  Int I = abc(5,10);  Int abc(a,b);  { ◦ Return a + b;  }  Value of I = 15.
  49. 49.  Single dimention  Multi dimention ◦ Collection of same data type. ◦ Int a[0];
  50. 50.  Index of array start with 0 (zero) Index 10A[0] A[1] A[2] A[3] 20 30 40 Int A[4] value
  51. 51.  Ex. Int a[4][3] ◦ 4 rows ◦ 3 columns ◦ a[1] 40 50 60 a[2] 70 80 90 a[3] 100 110 120 a[0] 10 20 30 index a[0] a[1] a[2] a[1][1] = 50
  52. 52.  User define data type  Key word Enum use to store only user define data  enum day = {“Sunday” , ”Monday” , ”Tuesday”}  Index start from 0  Ex index of Sunday is 0.
  53. 53.  Collection of different data type  User define data type  Access by . (Dot)  Define with struct keyword
  54. 54.  struct structure name  {  Variable data type variable name  Variable data type variable name  Variable data type variable name Up to n variables. . .  };
  55. 55.  struct std  { ◦ int rn; ◦ float per;  };  Void main()  { ◦ std s; ◦ S.rn = 915;  }
  56. 56.  Use to define method and scope of method  Use :: to define scope  Define methods in class and out side of class also.
  57. 57.  Return type class name :: method name( list of parameters)
  58. 58.  class abc  { ◦ Public: ◦ Void msg();  }; ◦ void abc :: msg() ◦ {  Executable part ◦ }
  59. 59.  Class :  Collection of methods and variables.  Collection of private and public data.  Object :  Instants that Use to access functionality of class.
  60. 60.  class class_name  {  Public :  Methods  Variables  };
  61. 61.  Return type method name ( list of parameters)  { ◦ Executable part ◦ [ return data ]  };
  62. 62. Class name object name; Ex. abc a; Class name abc Object name a
  63. 63.  Create memory space on RAM.  Calling when creating object of any class  All class contains 1 default constructor.  Constructor name and class name both are same.  Default constructor not take any parameters.
  64. 64. A constructor is a special member function that initializes the objects of its class. It is special because its name is the same as the class name. It is invoked automatically whenever an object is created. It is called constructor because it constructs the values of data members of the class. It does not have any return type, not even void.
  65. 65.  class abc  { ◦ public: ◦ abc() ◦ {  Executable part ◦ }  };
  66. 66.  Use to delete object of any class  Call by ~ sign.  Destructor never return any kind of values.
  67. 67.  class abc  {  public : ◦ ~ abc() ◦ { ◦ }  }
  68. 68.  class abc  {  public :  void msg()  {  cout<<“welcome ”;  };  };  void main  { ◦ abc a; ◦ a.msg();  } o/p = welcome
  69. 69.  Re usability of any class  Extends on class in another class  Code re usability  Access methods and variables of super class  Inherit functionality of super class.  Use of pre define class
  70. 70.  Mainly 5 type of inheritance available in c++  Single level inheritance  Multi level inheritance  Multiple inheritance  Hierarchical inheritance  Hybrid inheritance
  71. 71.  Base class Derived class Access public private protected specifier public public private protected private Not Not Not inherited inherited inherited protected protected protected protected
  72. 72.  Ex. Functionality of class A use in class B A B
  73. 73. a b c d
  74. 74. c a b
  75. 75. a b c d
  76. 76.  Combination of hierarchical and multiple a d b b
  77. 77.  Remember  Available types of inheritance is ◦ Single level inheritance ◦ Multi level inheritance ◦ Multiple inheritance ◦ Hierarchical inheritance ◦ Hybrid inheritance
  78. 78.  Ex. Functionality of class A use in class B A B
  79. 79.  Base Class name : mode of inheritance  super class name  Different Modes ◦ Public ◦ Private ◦ Protected
  80. 80.  class abc  { ◦ Methods and variable  };  class xyz : public abc  { ◦ Methods and variable  };
  81. 81. a b c d
  82. 82.  Class name (parent)  {  }  Class name(child):access specification class name( parent class )  {  }  Class name (sub child) : access specification class name (parent class)
  83. 83.  Class demo { }  Class demo1: public demo { }  Class demo2 : public demo1 { }
  84. 84. c a b
  85. 85.  Class class name { } class class name { } class class name : access specification class name ( parent 1 ), (parent 2 )
  86. 86.  Class demo { } Class demo1 { } Class final : public demo, public demo1 { }
  87. 87. a b c d
  88. 88.  Class class name { } Class calss name : access specification class name { } Class class name : access specification class name { }
  89. 89.  Class demo { } Class demo1 : public demo { } Class demo2 : public demo { }
  90. 90.  Combination of hierarchical a d b b
  91. 91. Class class name { } Class class name : access specification class name { } Class class name : access specification class name { } Class class name : access specification class name, access specification class name { }
  92. 92.  Class demo  {}  Class demo1 : public demo  {}  Class demo2 : public demo  {}  Class final : public demo1, public demo2  {}
  93. 93.  A file is a collection of logically related records. A program usually requires two types of data communication.
  94. 94. Data Type Description ofstream This data type represents the output file stream and is used to create files and to write information to files. ifstream This data type represents the input file stream and is used to read information from files. fstream This data type represents the file stream generally, and has the capabilities of both ofstream and ifstream which means it can create files, write information to files, and read information from files.
  95. 95.  (i) Writing data on the datafile: ◦ The data flows from keyboard to memory and from memory to storage device. ◦ Keyboard —> memory —> hard disk/floppydisk  (ii) Reading data from datafile: ◦ The data flows from storage device to memory and from memory to output device, particularly monitor. datafile —> memory — > output device (screen)
  96. 96. Mode Flag Description ios::app Append mode. All output to that file to be appended to the end. ios::ate Open a file for output and move the read/write control to the end of the file. ios::in Open a file for reading. ios::out Open a file for writing. ios::trunc If the file already exists, its contents will be truncated before opening the file.
  97. 97. fstream afile; afile.open("file.dat", ios::out | ios::in ); ofstream outfile; outfile.open("file.dat", ios::out | ios::trunc );
  98. 98. FileName.Close();
  99. 99. While doing C++ programming, you write information to a file from your program using the stream insertion operator (<<) just as you use that operator to output information to the screen. The only difference is that you use an ofstream or fstream object instead of the cout object
  100. 100. You read information from a file into your program using the stream extraction operator (<<) just as you use that operator to input information from the keyboard. The only difference is that you use an ifstream or fstream object instead of the cin object.
  101. 101.  File has two associated pointers called input pointer (or get pointer) and output pointer (or put pointer). Each time an input or output operation takes place, the pointer moves automatically. There are two pointers.  seekg ( ) It moves get pointer to a specified location.  seekp ( ) It moves the put pointer to a specified location
  102. 102.  Ios:: beg ios:: cur ios::end  ios :: beg means start of the file  ios :: cur means current position of the pointer  ios :: end means end of the file file
  103. 103.  A pointer is a variable that represents the location (rather than the value ) of a data item such as a variable or an array element
  104. 104.  Pointer variables declare with * sign.  And pointer variables access with & sign.
  105. 105.  Int a = 10;  Int b = &a; ◦ In above example variable “a” is integer type variable and variable “b” is also integer variable. ◦ Variable b store the reference of variable “a” and when we use the variable “b” it return the value of variable “a”.
  106. 106.  Operator overloading is use to overload any predefined operators.  Create class and with operator method and write new code for any operator.
  107. 107.  class class_name { public : void operator sign of operator () { new logic for operator }; }; Main method { object and apply operator }
  108. 108.  Class demo { ◦ Public: ◦ Void operator ++ () ◦ {  Cout<<“ ++ operator overloaded”; ◦ } }; Void main() { demo d; d++ }
  109. 109. Class name is demo. Publicly overload ++ operator with simple message. d is object of demo class. whenever you apply ++ operator then compiler not increment any value in object, But print simple message on screen.

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