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GreenDroid

GreenDroid is a 45 nm multicore research prototype that targets the Android mobile phone software stack and can execute general-purpose mobile programs with 11 times less energy than today’s most energy-efficient designs, at similar or better levels of performance. It does this through the use of 100 or so automatically generated, highly specialized, energy-reducing cores, called conservation cores or c-cores. GreenDroid will serve as a prototype for mobile application processors in the next five to ten years.
So greendroid is always better than android.

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GreenDroid

  1. 1. SNIGDHA.M ECE Department MVGR College Of Engg. THE FUTURE OF ANDROID
  2. 2. CONTENTS ANDROID BEGINNING ANDROID ARCHITECTURE DISADVANTAGE OF ANDROID GREENDROID INTRODUCTION THE UTILIZATION WALL DARK SILICON & C-CORES PURPOSE OF GREENDROID GREENDROID ARCHITECTURE
  3. 3. ANDROID THE BEGINNING It is an open source software platform and operating system for mobile devices. It is based on Linux kernel. Developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance . Allows writing the managed code in Java language Android has its own virtual machine DVM(DALVIK VIRTUAL MACHINE),which is used for executing the android application. It has evolved from the first version named as Android 1.0 to the latest version Android 6.0(released in October 2015).
  4. 4. ANDROID ARCHITECTURE The software stack is split into five ways: 1. The application layer(The browser and the contacts work with the help of the application layer) 2. The application framework(This is the toolkit that all applications use, like the inbuilt programs and also the downloaded programs) 3. The libraries(Android has its own libraries, written in C/C++,for web browsing a web library and for video playing a video library, etc) 4. Run Time 5. The Linux Kernel (provides services like power management and service management)
  5. 5. DISADVANTAGES OF ANDROID Android Market is less control of the manager sometimes there is malware. Wasteful Batteries, This is because there is a lot of process in the background causing the battery quickly drains. Sometimes the device is slow even though it is an official version of the android . Extremely inconsistent in design among apps. Very unstable and often hang or crash.
  6. 6. GREENDROID INTRODUCTION Greendroid is intended to help people in designing Android applications. Keep in mind, it is still a work in progress! The Greendroid mobile application processor is a 45-nm multi core research prototype that targets the Android mobile-phone software stack and can execute general-purpose mobile programs with 11 times less energy than today’s most energy- efficient designs, at similar or better performance levels. It does this through the use of a hundred or so automatically generated, highly specialized, energy-reducing cores, called conservation cores. The research attacks a key technological problem for microprocessor architects, which is called the utilization wall.
  7. 7. THE UTILIZATION WALL The utilization wall says that, with each process generation, the percentage of transistors that a chip design can switch at full frequency, drops exponentially because of power constraints. It is expected that as the size of the chip decreases the utilization of the chip also decreases as you can see on the chip .For a every reduction in size there is a reduction in utilization.
  8. 8. THE DARK SILICON Power and Area go hand by hand when we are designing a circuit .We need to be precise with our power and so with our area. But what happens is in our mobile processors large swath’s of chips silicon area must remain passive in order to meet the power limitations in the chip. With each generation power limitations are becoming exponentially very high. Only 1 % of 32nm sized chip can operate completely at full frequency at a power budget of 3W
  9. 9. Conventional chip designs in a mobile phone lose significant energy due to the presence of unused transistors called dark silicon. Dark silicon is when we have three billion transistors on our chip but we can only use 1.8 percent of them at a time, so as to squeak under the threshold of our chip's draconian energy budget. The dark silicon problem is directly responsible for the desktop processor industry’s decision to stop scaling clock frequencies and instead build multi-core processors. Dark silicon is necessary, because engineers are unable to reduce chips' operating voltages any further to offset increases in power consumption and waste heat produced by smaller, faster chips . This dark silicon limits the utilization of the application processors to the fullest. CONTD..
  10. 10. THE DARK SILICON EFFECT
  11. 11. WHAT DO WE DO WITH DARK SILICON  Goal: Leverage dark silicon to scale the utilization wall  Insights: Power is now more expensive than area Specialized logic can improve energy efficiency (10–1000x)  Our approach: Fill dark silicon with specialized cores to save energy on common applications Provide focused re configurability to handle evolving workloads
  12. 12. C-CORES  It follows the ideology “If you fill the chip with highly specialized cores, then the fraction of the chip that is lit up at one time can be the most energy efficient for that particular task”. These highly specialized cores are known as conservation cores or c-cores.  To pursue this goal Conservation cores, or c-cores, are specialized processors that focus on reducing energy and energy-delay instead of increasing performance. This focus on energy makes c-cores an excellent match for many applications that would be poor candidates for hardware acceleration (e.g., irregular integer codes).
  13. 13. ADVANTAGES OF C-CORES  If more amount of area is accomodated for c cores then the execution performance of c cores can be made more and energy consumption per instruction can be reduced.  7 mm2 of c-cores provides: – 95% execution coverage – 8x energy savings over MIPS core.
  14. 14. PURPOSE OF GREENDROID Help developers to code highly functional applications.  The Android framework may look like “over-engineered” sometimes. Actually, I believe this is a direct consequence of the fact you can do almost everything you want.  Unfortunately, this openness (again!) makes it harder to apprehend.  Let’s say for instance, you are a beginner and wants to develop your own application. You’ll have to read a lot of documentation in order to be “up and ready”. GreenDroid makes development a lot easier without decreasing the powerfulness of the amazing Android framework!
  15. 15. CONTD.. Leverage the power of the Android framework. Developing on the Android platform may be pretty easy if you’re not taking care of the resources you’re using. Trying to optimize your application is quite hard sometimes and is a very demanding task. GreenDroid has been developed to be as efficient as possible by integrating basic optimizations. Use as much XML(EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE) as possible. It’s not a mystery to anybody. Android UI development is based on amazing techniques. Layouts and views are defined in XML and automatically inflated by the system. Being an “easy-to- read-for-humans” format, XML is very used among Android developers. GreenDroid puts XML in the middle of the library and takes advantage of all amazing possibilities offered by Android XML files.
  16. 16. GREENDROID ARCHITECTURE A Green Droid processor combines general-purpose processors with application-specific coprocessors that are very energy efficient.  These conservation cores, or c-cores, execute most of an application’s code and will account for well over 90 percent of execution time. Green-Droid is a heterogeneous tiled architecture. illustrates how it uses a grid-based organization to connect multiple tiles. It contains an energy-efficient 32-bit 7-stage in order pipeline that runs at 1.5 GHz in a 45 nm process technology
  17. 17. CONTD.. It includes a single-precision floating point unit (FPU), multiplier, 16- kbyte I-cache, translation look aside buffer (TLB), and 32-kbyte banked L1 data cache. The architecture also includes a mesh-based on-chip network (OCN). The OCN carries memory traffic and supports fast synchronization primitives
  18. 18. GREENDROID TILED ARCHITECTURE • Tiled lattice of 16 cores • Each tile contains • – 6-10 Android c-cores • (~125 total) • – 32 KB D-cache • (shared with CPU) • – MIPS processor • 32 bit, in-order, • 7-stage pipeline • 16 KB I-cache • Single-precision FPU • – On-chip network router
  19. 19. CONCLUSION GreenDroid is a 45 nm multicore research prototype that targets the Android mobile phone software stack and can execute general-purpose mobile programs with 11 times less energy than today’s most energy-efficient designs, at similar or better levels of performance. It does this through the use of 100 or so automatically generated, highly specialized, energy- reducing cores, called conservation cores or c-cores. GreenDroid will serve as a prototype for mobile application processors in the next five to ten years. So greendroid is always better than android.
  20. 20. REFERENCES • IEEE Micro 2011(March/April)-Saturnino Garcia ,Jack Sampson • Conservation Cores by Jack Sampson • Integrated Circuits for Communication Stephen Swann

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