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Basic and Applied Research.pptx

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Basic and Applied Research.pptx

  1. 1. Research Methodology Basic and Applied Research Dr. SONIKA ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR B.Ed. DEPT. ISABELLA THOBURN COLLEGE LUCKNOW
  2. 2. Research ??????? • Research involves a purposive, organized and planned program of activities that result in- The acquisition of new knowledge Application of the theory to solve problems
  3. 3. Characteristics of Research • Directed towards solution of a problem • Emphasizes the development of generalization, principles or theories • Based on observable experience or evidences • Demands valid and reliable data gathering procedures
  4. 4. Characteristics of Research • Requires expertise • Is a patient and unhurried activity • Carefully recorded and reported • Sometimes requires courage
  5. 5. APPROACHES TO RESEARCH • BASIC RESEARCH • APPLIED RESEARCH • ACTION RESEARCH
  6. 6. Basic Research • Also referred to as Fundamental Research. • Emerged in late 19th and early 20th century as a concept. • Studies conducted for deeper understanding.
  7. 7. Basic Research • Formulation as well as reformulation of theories. • No immediate or planned application. • Knowledge obtained expands the theoretical base of a subject.
  8. 8. Characteristics of Basic Research • Based on belief ‘knowledge for knowledge’s sake’. • Collection and analysis of data to develop and enhance theory base. • Takes place in sterile environment.
  9. 9. Characteristics of Basic Research • Carried out to understand the relationship between the variables. • Explanatory in nature; sometimes exploratory and descriptive. • Lays down the foundation for applied research.
  10. 10. Examples of Basic Research • How do teaching methods affect students’ concentration in class? • How does the language acquisition device work on children? • What are the components of human DNA? • What are the effects of stress on aggressiveness?
  11. 11. Basic Research Methods Interview • One-on-one interaction with an individual in order to gather relevant information about a phenomenon. • Interview can be structured, unstructured or semi- structured depending on the research process and objectives.
  12. 12. Observation • Data-gathering method that involves paying close attention to a phenomenon for a specific period of time in order to gather relevant information about its behaviors. • Observation can be structured or unstructured depending on its procedures and approach. Basic Research Methods
  13. 13. Basic Research Methods • Observation • In structured observation, the data collection is carried out using a predefined procedure and in line with a specific schedule while unstructured observation is not restricted to a predetermined procedure.
  14. 14. Experiment • Quantitative data-gathering method that seeks to validate or refute a hypothesis • It can also be used to test existing theories. Basic Research Methods
  15. 15. Basic Research Methods Experiments • The researcher manipulates dependent and independent variables to achieve research outcomes • Three major methods: - controlled experiments - field experiments - natural experiments
  16. 16. Questionnaire • Data collection tool that is made up of a series of questions to which the research subjects provide answers. • It is a cost-effective method of data gathering. Basic Research Methods
  17. 17. Importance of Basic Research • Acquisition of New Knowledge: Basic research results in new knowledge. It is responsible for many research breakthroughs in different fields of study, and it is often considered as the pacesetter in technological and innovative solutions. • Basic research offers the foundation for applied research
  18. 18. Importance of Basic Research • Basic research enhances the understanding of different subject matters • It provides multiple possible dimensions for interpretation of these subject matters. • Findings of fundamental research are extremely useful in expanding the pool of knowledge in different disciplines.
  19. 19. Disadvantages of Basic Research • Findings from basic research have little or no immediate practical implications. However, these findings may be useful in providing solutions to different problems, in the long run. • Basic research does not have strict deadlines. • Basic research does not solve any specific problems.
  20. 20. Applied Research • Seeks to solve a specific problem. • Conducted to solve the problems affecting an individual, group or society.
  21. 21. Applied Research • Provide innovation solutions. • Identification of problem, development of hypothesis, experimentation. • Usually follows empirical methods to solve problems.
  22. 22. Characteristic of Applied Research • Solution-specific and addresses practical questions. • Collection and analysis of data to examine usefulness of theory in solving practical problems.
  23. 23. Characteristic of Applied Research • Exploratory but usually descriptive. • Involves precise measurement of the characteristics and describes relationship between variables.
  24. 24. Examples of Applied Research • Research to improve workplace efficiency and organizational policies. • A study into the way to improve teacher-learner classroom engagements. • A study to build students’ interests in Mathematics. • Investigating factors that improve teacher’s productivity. • An investigation to identify the benefits of a teaching innovation.
  25. 25. • Surveys • Observation • Focus group • Interview • Data reporting Applied Research Methods
  26. 26. Importance of Applied Research • Validity: Applied research is unbiased in nature because it tests empirical evidence in order to arrive at valid research outcomes. • It employs carefully mapped-out procedures, and this makes it a more valid research approach. • It is useful in solving specific problems. It helps individuals and organizations to find solutions to specific problems.
  27. 27. • It is not flexible in nature as it is restricted to a stipulated deadline. • Applied research is limited in nature and it cannot be generalized. In other words, the findings from applied research cannot be generalized. Disadvantages of Applied Research
  28. 28. Differences in Basic and Applied Research • Difference in purpose. • Difference in context. • Difference in nature.
  29. 29. Relationship between Basic and Applied Research • Basic research provides theory and groundwork for Applied Research • Applied research provides data to support and revise theory from Basic research • Both complementary to each other in modern times
  30. 30. References • Best, J.W. (2000) Research Methodology in Education, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 7th Ed. • Kerlinger, F.N. ( 1993) Foundations of Behavioral Research, Surjeet Publications, New Delhi, 2nd Ed. • Paneerselvam, R. (2012) Research methodology, Prentice hall of India, New Delhi, 10th Ed.

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