Development refers to the biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes that
begin at conception and continue throughout a lifetime. Development is dynamic
and includes progression. However, in some disease processes development is
delayed or regresses. For example, older adults demonstrate cognitive development
resulting in wisdom as they incorporate life experiences into decision making, but
they do not perform as well as young adults when speed is required for information
processing (Santrock, 2008).
Developmental theories provide a framework for examining, describing, and
appreciating human development. For example, knowledge of Erikson’s psychosocial
theory of development helps caregivers understand the importance of supporting the
development of basic trust in the infancy stage. Trust establishes the foundation for all
future relationships. Developmental theories are also important in helping nurses assess
and treat a person’s response to an illness. Understanding the specific task or need of
each developmental stage guides caregivers in planning appropriate individualized care
for patients.Human development is a dynamic and complex process that cannot be
explained by only one theory.
According to Freud, almost the entire mental life is
directed from the unconcious forces. The conscious
level is very small part of the unconcious mind.
Accordingly only 1/10th part of an iceberg remains
above the water, while the 9/10th is concealed below
the water,similiarly the conscious level of the man’s
mind is very small part of the unconscious. Thus, most
of the human activities are motivated from the
unconcious. Frued devised many methods to explain
the unconcious, the techniques used which is known as
THE CONCEPTS USED ARE
All behaviour determined by prior
thoughts and mental process.
• ID- Unorganized reservoir of Psychic energy,
furnishes energy for ego and super ego. It consists of
instinctual forces, primitive biological drives, and an
impulse necessary for survival. In other words Id is the
score house of instinctive impulses,frustrated desires
and repressed feelings.
• - Id operates on ‘pleasure principle’(seeking of
immediate gratifications and avoidance of discomfort)
• - Id discharges ‘tension’ through reflex psychological
activity and primary process thinking.
EGO - it is concerned with the inner mind of the man.
It is partly conscious and partly unconscious. Ego tries
to mediate between the world and the Id. It establishes
relations with environment through conscious
perception, feeling and action. Ego guides person to
acceptable behaviour, . Ego directs motor and all
• SUPER EGO
• It is referred as perfection principle, the super ego develops
between ages 3 & 6 years, internalizes values and morals set
forth by primary care givers it is composed of two major
components the ego ideal and the con-science. When the child
is rewarded for good behaviour the self esteem is enhanced
and the behaviour becomes part the ego ideal; when the child
is punished for bad behaviour conscience is developed.
• The super ego is important in the socialization of the
individual as it assists the ego in the control of id impulses
When the superego becomes rigid and punitive, problems with
low confidence and low self esteem arise.
Topography of The Mind Freud classified all
mental content & operations into three categories -
n The conscious
n The pre conscious
n The unconscious
Dynamics of The Personality
Freud believed that psychic energy or
impetus required for mental
functioning. Freud called this psychic
energy the Libido (or the drive to fulfil
physiological needs such as hunger,
thirst and sex) .As the child matures,
psychic energy is diverted from the id
to form ego & then from the ego to
Freud used the term cathexis & anticathexis to describe the force within
the Id, Ego & Superego that are used to invest psychic energy in
external source to satisfy needs.
Cathexis is the process by which id invest energy into an object to in an
attempt to achieve gratification. An example is the individual who
instinctively turn to alcohol to relieve stress.
Anticathexis is the use of psychic energy by the ego & the superego to
control id impulses. In eg, the ego attempt to control the use of alcohol
with rational thinking to control the use of alcohol with rational
thinking, such as, 'I already have ulcers from drinking too much. The
superego would exert control with, 'I shouldn't drink. If i drink, my
family will be hurt & angry. Freud believes that an imbalance between
cathexis & anticathexis resulted in internal conflicts, producing tension
& anxiety in individual.