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Psychoanalytical theory

  1. welcome
  2. a seminar by Soumyasree Bose MSc. Nursing 1st year
  3. topic- Psychoanalytical theory and Cognitive development theory.
  4. INTRODUCTION Development refers to the biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes that begin at conception and continue throughout a lifetime. Development is dynamic and includes progression. However, in some disease processes development is delayed or regresses. For example, older adults demonstrate cognitive development resulting in wisdom as they incorporate life experiences into decision making, but they do not perform as well as young adults when speed is required for information processing (Santrock, 2008).
  5. Developmental theories provide a framework for examining, describing, and appreciating human development. For example, knowledge of Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development helps caregivers understand the importance of supporting the development of basic trust in the infancy stage. Trust establishes the foundation for all future relationships. Developmental theories are also important in helping nurses assess and treat a person’s response to an illness. Understanding the specific task or need of each developmental stage guides caregivers in planning appropriate individualized care for patients.Human development is a dynamic and complex process that cannot be explained by only one theory.
  7. 8 INTRODUCTION According to Freud, almost the entire mental life is directed from the unconcious forces. The conscious level is very small part of the unconcious mind. Accordingly only 1/10th part of an iceberg remains above the water, while the 9/10th is concealed below the water,similiarly the conscious level of the man’s mind is very small part of the unconscious. Thus, most of the human activities are motivated from the unconcious. Frued devised many methods to explain the unconcious, the techniques used which is known as “Psychoanalysis”.
  8. 9 THE CONCEPTS USED ARE 1.PSYCHIC DETERMINATION: All behaviour determined by prior thoughts and mental process.
  10. 11 • ID- Unorganized reservoir of Psychic energy, furnishes energy for ego and super ego. It consists of instinctual forces, primitive biological drives, and an impulse necessary for survival. In other words Id is the score house of instinctive impulses,frustrated desires and repressed feelings. • - Id operates on ‘pleasure principle’(seeking of immediate gratifications and avoidance of discomfort) • - Id discharges ‘tension’ through reflex psychological activity and primary process thinking.
  11. 12 EGO - it is concerned with the inner mind of the man. It is partly conscious and partly unconscious. Ego tries to mediate between the world and the Id. It establishes relations with environment through conscious perception, feeling and action. Ego guides person to acceptable behaviour, . Ego directs motor and all cognitive functions.
  12. 13 • SUPER EGO • • It is referred as perfection principle, the super ego develops between ages 3 & 6 years, internalizes values and morals set forth by primary care givers it is composed of two major components the ego ideal and the con-science. When the child is rewarded for good behaviour the self esteem is enhanced and the behaviour becomes part the ego ideal; when the child is punished for bad behaviour conscience is developed. • The super ego is important in the socialization of the individual as it assists the ego in the control of id impulses When the superego becomes rigid and punitive, problems with low confidence and low self esteem arise. •
  13. 14 Topography of The Mind Freud classified all mental content & operations into three categories - n The conscious n The pre conscious n The unconscious
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  15. 16 Dynamics of The Personality Freud believed that psychic energy or impetus required for mental functioning. Freud called this psychic energy the Libido (or the drive to fulfil physiological needs such as hunger, thirst and sex) .As the child matures, psychic energy is diverted from the id to form ego & then from the ego to super ego.
  16. 17 Freud used the term cathexis & anticathexis to describe the force within the Id, Ego & Superego that are used to invest psychic energy in external source to satisfy needs. Cathexis is the process by which id invest energy into an object to in an attempt to achieve gratification. An example is the individual who instinctively turn to alcohol to relieve stress. Anticathexis is the use of psychic energy by the ego & the superego to control id impulses. In eg, the ego attempt to control the use of alcohol with rational thinking to control the use of alcohol with rational thinking, such as, 'I already have ulcers from drinking too much. The superego would exert control with, 'I shouldn't drink. If i drink, my family will be hurt & angry. Freud believes that an imbalance between cathexis & anticathexis resulted in internal conflicts, producing tension & anxiety in individual.
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