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1 research methdology mandatory steps

The slides herein are used for delivering Key note address in Research Methodology Workshop delivered at VTU PG Centre Muddenahalli, Doddaballapura, Karnataka. These slides depict the current scenario of research work in India and further, gives an introduction to Mandatory steps to be taken for carrying out research activity in Engineering and Social Sciences topics.

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1 research methdology mandatory steps

  1. 1. Research in India Keynote Address Workshop on Research Methodology, VTUPG Centre, Muddenahalli 2nd April 2018 Dr. S.N. Sridhara Principal and Director K.S. School of Engineering and Management Bengaluru Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 1
  2. 2. Research: Definition Research: The systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 2
  3. 3. Research “ Research is a structured systematic study carried out through acceptable Scientific Methodology to solve problems that results in verifiable, valuable and valid proposals” Research may lead to new Theory, Proposal, Correlation, Design or Method or even a new Product Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 3
  4. 4. Research Outcome Research Outcome may be utilised for 1. Presenting thesis for Degree 2. Publishing research papers 3. Filing patents 4. Releasing new products or ideas to market and 5. Carrying out consultancy services Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 4
  5. 5. Why a Faculty should take up Research • Opportunity to widen the knowledge base • Sharpening of learning skills • Opportunity to publish research papers • Opportunity to take financial grant for research projects • Earn more through consultancy projects Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 5
  6. 6. M.Phil and Ph.D. Degrees awarded in India in 2015- 16 as per UGC data https://www.ugc.ac.in/stats.aspx Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 6
  7. 7. Faculty wise enrolment for in Ph.D.; Colleges and Universities as per UGC data https://www.ugc.ac.in/stats.aspx Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 7
  8. 8. Enrolment to Ph.D. Courses as per Ministry of Human Resource Department http://mhrd.gov.in/statist Ph.D. Male Female Both All University Types 2015-16 65620 43932 109552 2014-15 60907 39885 100792 2013-14 58153 37184 95337 2012-13 48984 33545 82529 2011-12 43219 26308 69527 Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 8
  9. 9. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 9
  10. 10. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 10
  11. 11. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 11
  12. 12. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 12
  13. 13. Research Design and Methods •Research Design is the framework to methodically define the research questions and seek answers. •A few specific questions in Research Methods, may be as follows: 1. Which is the field of study? • generic to start with and more specific at later stages 2. Why this research? • Gap in literature and possible outcome from this research Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 13
  14. 14. 3. What technical skills are required for this research? • Mathematical background, subject knowledge, special technical tools etc.. 4. What are your strengths? • Mathematical background, subject knowledge, special technical tools etc.. 5. What are your to-be-improved issues? • Mathematical background, subject knowledge, special technical tools etc.. Research Design and Methods Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 14
  15. 15. 6. What facility is required for the research • Hardware, Software, infrastructure etc. 7. What facilities are available and what is to be procured? • Hardware, Software, Infrastructure etc. 8. Which are the sources of research technical knowhow? • Relevant journals, research institutes, leading researchers, leading research facilities etc must be known in advance. Research Design and Methods Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 15
  16. 16. 9. In case of sociology type of research, what data is required; and from where these can be retrieved or collected? • Data for understanding and situation; can be collected from survey and other means. 10.What will be the sample design? • Target population and collection of data. 11.How is the data analysed? • Data analysis techniques must be discussed. Research Design and Methods Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 16
  17. 17. Research Methodology - Mandatory Steps in Science and Engineering • Finding a topic • Problem specification • State-of-the-art (literature review) • Proposed approaches and their justification • Tools and methods used • Expected results and their significance • Plan of activities, time table Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 17
  18. 18. • Selection of a research topic • Definition of a research problem • Literature survey • Evaluation of current status of the topic chosen • Formulation of hypotheses • Research design • Actual investigation • Data analysis • Interpretation of result • Report Research Methodology - Mandatory Steps in Social Science Research Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 18
  19. 19. Begin with broad questions Narrow Down, Focus in Focus on highly narrowed down questions Analyse in the focused arena Generalise the results using broad testing methodology Research Methodology Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 19
  20. 20. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 20
  21. 21. Knowing Why and What.mp4 Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 21
  22. 22. Classification of Research in Engineering Field Based on Application: 1. Pure (Basic)Research, 2. Applied Research Pure Research involves developing and/or testing new theories, models, designs and correlation that may or may not have immediate application but of immense importance from the point of view of development of knowledge base in fundamental aspects. Examples: •New theory annex added to electromagnetic wave theory, •Development of analytical procedure to solve a highly complex mathematical model, •Contribution to number theory etc., Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 22
  23. 23. Classification of Research in Engineering Field Applied Research refers to research carried out to derive a methodology, model, design or analysis for problems that have immediate application. In case of applied research, the the immediate application of anticipated solution dictates the problem for the research. Examples: 1.Improvising the atomizer performance for application in a combustor, 2.Developing a new efficient and compact instrumentation / model for wireless communication. 3. Developing a new methodology for a manufacturing process, Inventing new tools of management, 4. Analysing a process or event in the light of physics to explain the phenomena reported etc., Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 23
  24. 24. Classification of Research in Engineering Field Based on Methodology: 1. Experimental, 2. Analytical 3. Numerical Experimental Research is associated with experimental investigation of a process or theme using appropriate tools. Examples: 1.Investigation of flow behaviour of a magnetic fluid in a magnetically resonated duct using appropriate instrumentation, 2. The performance evaluation of an internal combustion engine with different catalytic converters using required instrumentation, 3. Evolution and testing of a new strategy for product design as applied to specific class of products using the current trends in the market, etc., Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 24
  25. 25. Classification of Research in Engineering Field Analytical Research is associated with the developments of models or solution to the problems using analytical tools. Examples: 1. Solution to a set of partial differential equations using error functions or any such new methods. 2. Development of an analytical tool to collect and analyse data during adoption of a new management strategy. 3. Evolution of new standards and practices for efficient product design procedure. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 25
  26. 26. Classification of Research in Engineering Field Numerical Research is associated with the solution obtained for a practical problem using numerical tools. New numerical tools and procedures may be evolved during this process or the available commercial numerical analysis based software may be used to solve the problem. Examples: 1. Numerical investigation of flow of a non-newtonian fluid through a pin-hole orifice using a commercial software. 2. Development of a numerical tool to predict the fluid flow behaviour in a hypersonic flow regime. 3. Evolution of a new tool for grading the customer satisfaction using mathematical, statistical and numerical methods. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 26
  27. 27. • Research Methods are broadly classified as • Exploratory Research Method • Conclusive Research Method Research Design Methods Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 27
  28. 28. Experimental Research Design: The main objective of an experiment is to measure the influence of the independent variables on a dependant variable while keeping the other variables constant Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 28
  29. 29. Research Design Exploratory Research Design: It is a qualitative flexible approach of investigation wherein the working procedure is defined and explored for various alternate approaches in research. This is a simple procedure and loosely structured. Example: A rough route map laid down to carry out research towards addressing the issue. In this procedure, irrespective of complexities involved, only skeleton of research design is made. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 29
  30. 30. Research Design Conclusive Research Design: It is a quantitative definitive approach of investigation wherein the working procedure is defined and explored considering all details starting from literature survey upto drawing conclusions. Multiple divisions are shown under Conclusive Research Design. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 30
  31. 31. Exploratory Research 1. Loosely structured 2. Flexible methodology 3. Does not involve testing of hypothesis 4. Outcomes are specific to problem defined and cannot be generalised Conclusive Research 1. Well structured and systematic in Design 2. Has a formal and definitive methodology that must be followed and tested 3. Involves testing of hypothesis 4. Outcomes may be generalised since they have a theoretical and practical application Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 31
  32. 32. Research Design Descriptive Research Design: Descriptive research designs are most comprehensive and provides detail explanation to the research problems under investigation. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 32
  33. 33. Research Design Descriptive Research Design: In this research, the research design is rigid and not flexible and must focus on the following: 1. Objectives of study (Why and How) 2. Data collection methodology 3. Selecting the sample 4. Collecting the sample 5. Processing and analysing the data 6. Reporting Findings Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 33
  34. 34. Example for Descriptive Research Design: Case 1: Business Research, an example • Objectives: To find out the usefulness of playing instruments in a park • Data Collection Methods: Questionnaire for users, manufacturers, service providers etc, • Selecting the sample: Small park, Big park, park in Rich people living Area etc, Number of sample.. • Collecting the data: personal meeting, e-mail, through others …. • Processing and Analysing Data: Statistical and probabilistic approach, Hypothesis … • Reporting the Findings: Proper conclusion and applying to larger mass. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 34
  35. 35. Example for Descriptive Research Design: Case 1: Engineering Research, an example • Objectives: To find out the better design for a solar collector. • Data Collection Methods: previous papers on solar collectors, manufacturer's design plants etc. • Selecting the sample: A proper size of solar collector is chosen for investigation • Collecting the data: Collection of performance parameters of various solar collectors of same size from different manufacturer, design, material etc. Experimentation on solar power collection etc • Processing and Analysing Data: computation of performance parameters • Reporting the Findings: Proper conclusion and applying to larger or particular design. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 35
  36. 36. Experimental Research Design: • In an experiment, a researcher actively manipulates one or more casual variables and measures their effects on the dependant variables of interest. • Other variables not included may affect the outcome, hence it cannot prove causality. • Here one can infer on cause-and-effect relationship. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 36
  37. 37. Experimental Research Design: Example: Business research: usefulness of playing instrument in a park • Identified cause variables may be aesthetics of playing instrument and ergonomic design of instruments. The Dependent variable may be the happiness in children using these instruments. • Other cause variables ignored may be type of paints used on the instruments, the timings of opening of park etc., • Here one can infer on cause-and-effect relationship but may not be complete Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 37
  38. 38. Experimental Research Design: Example: Engineering research: Better design of solar collector plate • Identified cause variables may be material of plate of solar collector and slope of plate mounting . The Dependent variable may be the maximum heat extracted using Solar plate collector • Other cause variables ignored may be type water used in the plate collector, the piping material insulation etc., • Here one can infer on cause-and-effect relationship but may not be complete Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 38
  39. 39. Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 39
  40. 40. Happy Baby.mp4 Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 40
  41. 41. Thank you Dr. S.N. Sridhara, KSSEM sridharasn1964@gmail.com 41

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