The Objective of this presentation is to explain the
fundamentals of computer science. The target
audience can be students from Non IT background or
professionals with limited working knowledge of
This presentation will introduce the terms that are
frequently used in IT industry and it will help
familiarise students with the concept of Programming.
This presentation will not discuss any new topic it will
only reiterate the basic terms and definations
4. Human Brain and a Computer
What are the differences between a Human and a
5. What is a Computer
A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry
out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically
As it can be seen from the definition a computer will perform the set of tasks
that it has been asked to do. It simply follows the rule set given and does not
Further a program can only work on numbers even better binary number
system which has only 2 states TRUE (1) or FALSE (0) it does not understand
anything in between this
So in summary a program gives a set of instructions to the computer and tells
the order in which it should be executed.
6. Group Activity
Let us play a game team size 2.
Work with your partner to complete this exercise
Create a set of instructions to eat an Orange.
The set of instructions should be so detailed that a
person who has never seen an orange should be able to
eat an orange following your instructions
Take 5 minutes to list down the instructions
7. Note to the presenter
Dear Presenter kindly pause
this video for 5 minutes
giving the students time to
write their ideas
8. How to eat an orange?
Lucky we have seen an orange before and know how to eat
it. Let us see how many of you got it right
Prerequisites: An orange is a fruit which is orange in colour.
It has a skin which cannot be eaten. The skin needs to be
removed to then expose the fruit. Seed should not be eaten.
Step 0: Take an orange from the basket containing fruits
Step 1: Wash the fruit with water for 10 seconds
Step 2: With your finger nail pierce the orange skin by
2mm. Note to the students when we say pierce we as
human beings know when to stop a computer does not
9. How to eat an Orange ?
Step 3: Tear the skin until it cuts no end of the skin is
touching the fruit.
Step 4: Repeat Step 2 and 3 until there is no skin left
Step 5: Select one peel of orange (see the red mark in)
Step 6: Peel it out
Step 7: Open the inner skin to expose the seed
Step 8: Remove the seed
Step 9: Repeat step 5 to 8 until no more peels are
Step 10: Now you can enjoy the fruit……
10. Eating an orange to Computers
Algorithm: An algorithm is an outline of how a program
Procedure / Method / Function: Different languages use
different words but all mean the same…
A set of instructions for executing a specific task. In
our example peeling an orange skin is a method,
removing each peel is a method and removing the
seeds is a method.
Event/Interrupt: Is an action or occurrence recognised
Handler: A routine that handles an event.
11. Few more terms
Process: An instance of computer program being
Thread: A smallest sequence of program that can be
managed independently by a scheduler
Signal : A method of Inter process communication
Memory: The computing resource could be volatile or
All this is embedded within an Operating System
12. What is an operating system?
An operating system is a set of programs which interact
with the hardware and provide a set of common services for
Now let us understand what an OS is
Assume you are moving to a new place what will you look
This can be equated to a set of services provided by an
13. What are some common services?
File system management
Resource management (Can be memory or a resource
Provide an interface to the user (Limited control)
14. What to How
A program works on the target computer based on a
set of codes called Operational code (Opcode)
In general there are 4 steps which can be written as
22. Now lets move one step higher
So far we learnt about operating system, its functions
and the internal architecture of the 8085
Lets quickly go a few steps above and learn about
programming languages, Frameworks, Utilities etc
23. High level language
A programming language such as C, FORTRAN, or
Pascal that enables a programmer to write programs
that are more or less independent of a particular type
of computer. Such languages are considered high-
level because they are closer to human languages and
further from machine languages.
24. Software Framework
A framework is an infrastructure provided by a
programing language in order for the programmer to
implement his methods.
In computer systems, a framework is often a layered
structure indicating what kind of programs can or
should be built and how they would interrelate. Some
computer system frameworks also include actual
programs, specify programming interfaces, or offer
programming tools for using the frameworks.
Example frameworks : .Net, AJAX, Cactus,
A set of methods bundled together
Example Jquery, Methods that compute scientific
functions like ALGLIB, GNU Octave, Packages like
excel Labview and matlab
An algorithm (pronounced AL-go-rith-um) is a
procedure or formula for solving a problem. The word
derives from the name of the mathematician,
Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, who was part of
the royal court in Baghdad and who lived from about
780 to 850.
27. FLOW CHART SYMBOLS
TERMINAL – the beginning or ending of a
INPUT/OUTPUT – where the user of the program is
asked for information (INPUT) or where the program
displays a result (OUTPUT)
PROCESSING – shows any mathematical
CALL – shows any other pieces of the
program that are called upon
DECISION – represents any action where the
computer is making a decision
In this presentation we have learnt the different terms
used in computer science.
We have learnt about an Algorithm what it is and how
we should go about it
We have learnt about an operating system and its uses
We have learnt the differences between a framework
and a utility
29. About the author
Srikanth KS completed his MS from BITS Pilani
specialized in software systems. He works in a multi
national company as a software engineer responsible for
design and development of embedded software.
He has been in this industry since 15 years.
He has been a part of the journey by working with 8051
microcontrollers and is currently working on 32 bit
He has a passion to teach engineering students and to
provide them the knowledge that they seldom get in their
All his posts can be found at
The Author would like to thank all authors who have
contributed directly or indirectly in the preparation of
this slide show.
All information has been taken from the public
domain and the author thanks all of them for
providing the information.
Microprocessors – Goankar
Inside the ALU http://www.righto.com/2013/01/inside-alu-of-8085-
Terms and Definitions