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Developmental chrctrstcs during childhood

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Early Childhood Development
Early Childhood Development
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Developmental chrctrstcs during childhood

  1. 1. CHILDHOOD Begins when the relative dependency of babyhood is over at the age of 2 years extends to the time when the child becomes sexually mature.  Childhood is divided into two separate periods : EARLY and LATE CHILDHOOD -Early childhood extends from two – six years and late childhood extends from six to the time child becomes sexually mature(generally upto 12 years).
  2. 2. PARENTS EDUCATIONIST PSYCHOLOGISTS EARLY CHILDHOOD  Problem /troublesome age  Toy age  Preschool age  Pre-gang age  Exploratory, imitative and creative age LATE CHILDHOD  Most problematic age  Quarrelsome age  Elementary school age  Gang age  Age of conformity  Creative and play age
  3. 3. DEVELOPMENT AL CHARACHTERIS TICS EARLY CHILDHOOD LATE CHILDHOOD P H Y S I C A L  The average annual increase in height is 3 inches. By the age of six ,the average child measures 46.6 inches.  The average annual increase in weight is 3-5 pounds(weighs 7 times as much as they did at birth).Average girls weighs 48.5 pounds; Average boys weighs 49 pounds.  Baby looks disappears.  The muscles become stronger , larger and heavier.  During the fist 4 – 6 months of early childhood, the last four baby teeth-the back molars – erupt.  The brain size increases from 70% of its adult weight to 90%.  The period of late childhood involves slow consistent growth.  During this period , children grow an average of 2-3 inches a year;girls-58 inches, boys- 57.5 inches.  Children gain about 5-7 pounds a year.  Muscle mass and strength increases.  Skeletal bones lengthens. Skeletal growth is also associated with losing baby teeth.  Brains and nervous system develops and becomes more complex. By the age of 8-9 yrs, the brain is nearly adult size.
  4. 4. DEVELOPME NTAL CHARACHTE RISTICS EARLY CHILDHOOD LATE CHILDHOOD P H Y S I C A L Also develops some motor skills such as hoping, jumping, climbing, dancing and handedness (tendency of using one hand than the other). Motor skills continue to refine. Children love to run, jump, leap, throw, catch and balance. They become faster, stronger, better coordinated. They also improve resistance to common illness.
  5. 5. DEVELOPMEN TAL CHARACHTE RISTICS EARLY CHILDHOOD LATE CHILDHOOD C O G N I T I V E  It is Piaget’s pre-operational stage.  Child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not physically present.  The progress in symbolic thought continues.  Egocentrism: Children see the world only in terms of their own view.  Animism: Think that all the things are living.  Develops intuitive thoughts.  It is Piaget’s concrete operational stage. • Can perform concrete operation, reason logically. • Ability to classify . • Ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions(Transitivity). • Seriation (ability to order stimuli along quantitative dimensions).  Appreciates others views which declines his egocentrism.  Develops reversible mental actions.
  6. 6. DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACHTERISTI CS Early childhood Late childhood C O G N I T I V E Stage is also characterized by children having a tendency for centration,i.e. focusing on a single characteristic for understanding an event. Remembers familiar and repeated events . Learn problem solving skills and ability to learn from and adapt to life’s everyday experiences.  Develops critical as well as creative thinking(both convergent and divergent).  Long term memory increases with age during this period.
  7. 7. DEVELOPME NTAL CHARACHTE RISTICS Early childhood Late childhood S O C I A L  To identify themselves with the group , children imitate the attitude of a person whom they admires.  The desire to excel begins.  By the end of 3 yrs, cooperative play and group activities begin to develop.  Sympathy and empathy develops in them.  They discover sharing as one way to get social approval.  Develops affections towards the people outside the home ,i.e. teacher or some intimate objects.  Period is often called as gang age.  Don’t want to depend upon restricted environment of home, wants to be in the wider social world of peers and craves or social approvals.  In this process, envy, jealousy, aggressiveness etc. are clearly expressed in child’s behavior.  Children’s group tend to expand and to become highly organized.  Social skills such as sharing, communication and conflict resolution are further develop.
  8. 8. DEVELOPMENT AL CHARACHTERI STICS Early childhood Late childhood S O C I A l Children’s social horizons are limited mainly to the home, they are often selfish and egocentric. Children show off in front of their friends and family to gain attention. Decision making power increases. Children may tend to still show off in front of their friends and family to gain attention.
  9. 9. DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACHTERISTIC S Early childhood Late childhood E M O T I O N A L  Early childhood characterized by heightened emotionality.  Children’s emotion last only for few minutes.  They express anger through crying, screaming, kicking, jumping etc.  Response to fear include running away and hiding, crying etc.  They become jealous when they think parental attention are shifting towards someone else.  They express their joy by smiling and laughing, clapping, jumping etc.  Increased self regulation is one of the most important characteristic of late childhood.  Increased understanding of complex emotions such as pride and shame.  Increased ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactions.  As child gets older, he uses a greater variety of coping strategies.
  10. 10. DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACHTERISTIC S ROLE OF SCHOOL ROLE OF TEACHER P H Y S I C A L C O G N I T I V e  Healthy child shows good academic results . Schools must have programs about health sciences like participation in sports, games and physical exercises .  Child must informed about personal hygiene and cleanliness in school.  Students should not be taught with the same method in same atmosphere. School should have program for learning outside the classroom for better cognitive development.  Teacher must have knowledge to deal with grown up children and they must adopt different methods for treatment of the students in various classes.  He should keep records of physical development of his students .  Teacher should make heterogeneous groups of children to increase their cognitive power.  Interesting and pleasant method of teaching ensures the proper cognition of the child.
  11. 11. DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACHTERISTI CS ROLE OF SCHOOL ROLE OF TEACHER C O G N I T I V e S O C I A l  School should provide all special facilities for mentally retarded students.  Schools should provide useful materials such as good books, magazines and other internet facilities for development of creative thinking of children.  Function of education s to produce good citizens for the society . Success of the school reflects if a child is socially developed.  Duty of school is to provide facilities for social development of the child.  School instills sociable practices such as empathy, friendship, participation, sharing etc.  Teacher should treat MR students with care and love.  Teacher should stress on creative thinking of students.  Teacher must know different methods of teaching to deal individual differences.  Teacher should make them learn all social behaviors and norms.
  12. 12. DEVELOPMENT AL CHARACHTERIS TICS ROLE OF SCHOOL ROLE OF TEACHER E M O T I O N A l  School should have arrangement of activities like: boxing, wrestling, debating etc. which provides appropriate release of hidden emotions.  Interaction with peers and teachers make a child emotionally strong.  Teacher should behave in a friendly manner with children in order to understand their emotions.  He should arrange some healthy competition for their emotional development.

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