To fulfill assignment Teaching English as Foreign
Suci Nurjanah (16108810032)
Dian Fadhila M.Pd
In Teacher-Centered Instruction,
students put all of their focus on the
teacher. You can talk, and the students
exclusively listen. Before activities,
students work alone, and collaboration
• When education is teacher-centered, in classroom remains
orderly. Students are keep quiet, and you retain full control of
the classroom and its activities.
• Because students learn on their own, they learn independence
and make their own decisions.
• Because you direct all classroom activities, you don’t have to
worry that students will miss an important topic.
• When students work alone, they don’t learn to collaborate with
other students, and their communication skills may suffer.
• Teacher-centered can be boring for students. Their minds may
wander, and they may miss important facts.
• Teacher-centered instruction doesn’t allow students to express
themselves, ask questions, and direct their own learning.
• Student Centered Learning is approach gives
students the freedom to have a chance get in
depth knowledge and to improve the quality of
• Student-centered learning becomes a pioneer of
development of learning approach. In this
approach, students activities are important
indicators in learning process and quality of
• Students learn important communicative and
collaborative skills through group work.
• Students learn to direct their own learning, ask
questions, and complete tasks independently.
• Students are more interested in learning activities
when they can interact with one another and
• Because students are talking, classrooms may often be
noisy or chaotic.
• Teachers may have to attempt to manage all students’
activities at once, which can be difficult when students
are working on different stages of the same project.
• Because the teacher doesn’t always deliver instruction
to all students at once, some students may miss
• Some students prefer to work alone, so group work
can become problematic.
What is an approach?
•Underlying each method is a theory on the
nature of language and a theory on the nature of
language learning both of which comprise the
• These theories are derived from the areas of
linguistics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics and
are the source of principles and practices of language
1. Grammar Translation
• Traditional way of teaching Latin and Greek. In the
19th century used to teach French, German and
• Typical lesson consisted of
a) presentation of grammatical rule;
b) b) specially written text that demonstrated the rule,
c) c) list of new words,
d) translation exercises,
e) e) grammar exercises.
• Emphasis on learning to read and write.
• Vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated
• Long, elaborate explanations of the intricacies of
grammar are given.
• Medium of instruction was the mother tongue.
• No provision for the oral use of language.
• Little attention is paid to the content of texts,
are treated as exercises in in grammatical analysis.
• Often the only drills are exercises in translating
disconnected sentences from the target language
into the mother tongue.
• Grammar translation method was the most
popular and widely used method for language
teaching between the ages of 1840 to 1940. But
this method was first used for teaching and
learning Latin language which was not the
language of common use at that time. Latin was
considered as a classic language.
• Grammar translation method was criticized
intensively in the nineteenth century because it
was considered that this method cannot fulfill the
demands of language learning in nineteenth
• Grammar translation method
was criticized intensively in the
nineteenth century because it
was considered that this method
cannot fulfill the demands of
language learning in nineteenth
• The direct method was the outcome of the
reaction against the grammar translation method.
• This method is against the translation of written
and oral text and focuses on telling the meanings
of the words through action, demonstration or real
• – oral interaction,
• – spontaneous use of language,
• – no translation,
• – little if any analysis of grammatical rules and
2. Direct Method
In this method the teaching is done entirely in
the target language. The learner is not allowed
to use his or her mother tongue. Grammar rules
are avoided and there is emphasis on good
Posited by Charles Berlitz.
Second language learning is similar to first
• Classroom instruction was conducted in the
• There was an inductive approach to
• Only everyday vocabulary was taught.
• Concrete vocabulary was taught through
pictures and objects.
• Abstract vocabulary was taught by
association of ideas.
• This method sees language as a complex of
grammatical rules which are to be learned one at
a time in a set order. So for example the verb "to
be" is introduced and practised before the present
continuous tense which uses "to be" as an
• The structural approach mainly employs the
techniques of the direct method but the reading
and writing skills are not wholly neglected.
Structural approach was criticized because it was
only suitable for lower grades. Continuous teaching
of structures and their repetition make the
atmosphere dull and boring. It also neglected the
reading and writing abilities and there was also a
lack of skilled teachers.
4. Oral Approach/ Situational
• The oral approach is a method in which children
to use whatever hearing they get from their
surroundings. They also take help from the
context to understand and use language. The
target is to develop the skills in the individual so
that he can communicate and function
independently. This approach helps in the
development of reading and writing skills
• The theory behind this method is that
learning a language means acquiring
habits. There is much practice of
dialogues of every situations. New
language is first heard.
• This method is based on a linguistic
theory and behavioral psychology. The
Audiolingual method was widely used
in the 1950s and 1960s and the
emphasis was not on the
understanding of the words rather on
acquisition of structures and patterns
in common everyday dialogues
5. Audiolingual Method
The teaching of the oral skills with
accurate pronunciation, grammar
and the ability to respond quickly
and accurately is the main objective
of audiolingual method. Reading and
writing skills may be taught but they
are dependent on the oral skills
In Total Physical Response (TPR), the teacher gives the
students instructions and the students follow the
instructions by using whole body responses. James J.
Asher, a professor, of psychology at San Jose State
University developed the method Total Physical
Response in late 1960s to help in learning second
In TPR, the teacher repeats the process in the
class. Students respond to the commands of
the teacher which require physical movement.
TPR is most useful for beginners. TPR is also
used for teaching students with dyslexia or
related learning disabilities.
• Successful second language learning should be a parallel
process to child first language acquisition.
• Appropriate activities can produce stress-free learning.
• Learners are encourage to speak when they feel ready to
• Theory of language:
– a grammar based view of language.
– verb in ımperative form.
• Theory of language learning:
– a stimulus-response view.
• Silent way is the method of language teaching which
was proposed by Caleb Gattegno. This method is
based on the view that the teachers should be silent
in the classroom as much as possible but the teacher
must encourage the students to speak and use the
• You’re encouraging learners to be independent, to
discover and figure out the language for themselves.
Learning the target language is therefore seen as a
creative, problem-solving process—a engaging
7. Silent Way
• Characterized by a problem-solving approach.
• Develops independence and autonomy and encourages
students to cooperate with each other.
– Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates
rather than remembers and repeats what is to be
– Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating)
– Learning is facilitated by problem solving the material
to be learned.
8. Communicative Language
Communicative language teaching was developed in
the era of revolutions in British language teaching
traditions from late 1960s. Before communicative
language teaching, situational language teaching
was in practice in Britain for language teaching.
Communicative language teaching was actually
developed in the opposition of audiolingual method
which focuses on drilling and memorization.
Communicative language teaching focuses on
developing the ability of communication in learners
in real life situations. It focuses on meaning rather
• In 1977, Tracey Terrell proposed the natural approach
of language teaching. This approach was influenced by
Stephen Krashen’s theory of language acquisition. The
natural approach focuses on communication as the
major function of language.
• The natural approach was actually based on the
observation and understanding of the acquisition of the
first and the second language in informal settings
9. Natural Approach
• In addition, the Natural Approach
sees a difference between “learning”
• Learning a language requires
textbooks, grammar lessons and rote
• Acquiring a language only requires
an immersive process of repetition,
correction and recall.
10. Task-based Language Teaching
• Task- based language teaching is an approach that is
based on the assumption that tasks are the major unit
of language learning. This approach is based on the
problem solving view that the learners should be
given some tasks to be solved. These tasks are
related to the language structures that are required to
be learnt. The learners interact and communicate
with each other during solving these problems. In
these way, they learn the language
• Task-based language learning (TBLL) is a method of
instruction which focuses on the use of authentic
language, and students doing meaningful tasks using the
target language; for example, visiting the doctor,
conducting an interview, or calling customer services for
• Assessment is primarily based on task outcome (ie: the
appropriate completion of tasks) rather than simply
accuracy of language forms. This makes TBLL especially
popular for developing target language fluency and
One of the innovative methods dating back to the
1970’s (Georgi Lozanov). Lozanov suggests that the
human brain could process great quantities of
material if simply given the right conditions for
learning, among which are a state of relaxation and
giving over the control of the teacher. Music is central
to this method. Lozanov (1982) indicates that this
method transcends the language classroom and can
be applied in other school subjects. He claims that
about 200 to 240 new words may be introduced each