INTRODUCTION ABOUT BIOCHEMISTRY, ANIMAL CELL, PLANT CELL, COMPARISON OF ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL, COMPONENTS OF CELLS, DIAGRAM OF PLAT AND ANIMAL CELL, MEDICAL FIELD, PHARMACY FIELD, EDUCATIONAL VALUE, HUMAN BODY INFORMATION,
INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Que.1:Define the term biochemistry and biomolecule. State its importance in biochemistry.
Ans: BIOCHEMISTRY:The study dealing with the chemistry of living organism in its different phases of
activity is called as biochemistry. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as
proteins, Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules.
BIOMOLECULES: Biomolecules are molecules and ions present in organisms that are essentialto one
or more biological processes, such as cell division, development etc. Biomoleculesinclude large
macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, andnucleic acids, as well a small
molecules such as primary metabolites, secondarymetabolites and natural products.
IMPORTANCE OR SIGNIFICANCE OF BIOCHEMISTRYIN PHARMACY:
1. It deals with study of living system and its working.
2. Study of nature and working of biomolecules.
3. Diagnosis of various metabolic disorders.
4. Study of various deficiency diseases.
5. Helps in synthesizing new molecules.
Ans: Cell is the basic structural, functional and biological unit of all knownliving organisms and capable of
carry on processes of life independently.
Que.3:Draw neat labeled diagram of atypical animal cell. Name important organelles of animal cell and
write function of each.
DIAGRAM OF ATYPICAL ANIMAL CELL:
IMPORTANT ORGANELLES OF ANIMAL CELL AND ITS FUNCTION:
1. CELL MEMBRANE / PLASMA MEMBRANE/ PLASMOLEMMA:
Animal cell is bounded by thin membrane known as plasma membrane or cell membrane. Plasma
membrane is made up of thick layers. The outer layer is made up of proteins and polysaccharides. The
middle layer consists of phospholipids and Cholesterol level. The inner layer contains only proteins.
FUNCTIONS OF CELL MEMBRANE:
1. It holds cell together.
2. The membrane encloses the cell contents.
3. It maintains cell integrity.
4. It serves as selective barrier to the outside.
5. It secretes waste products.
6. It keeps out toxic materials.
7. It allows transport of certain substances in and out of the cell
2. NUCLEUS / CELL NUCLEUS :
A dense spherical structure called Nucleus is present in the center of the cell. It has a double layered
nuclear membrane called nuclear envelope. It is composed of two important nucleic acids, the
Deoxiribonuclic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA is in granular form and DNA is in
Within the nucleus a single or more spherical bodies present called as nucleoli. Inside the nuclear
membrane the living matter is present called as nucleoplasm.
FUNCTIONS OF NUCLEUS:
1. It is involved in the synthesis of RNA.
2. It is involved in the biogenesis of ribosomes.
3. Co-ordinates the activities of other cell organelle.
4. Transfers Hereditary /genetic characters.
3. MITOCHONDRIA:(A Draw a neat labeled diagram of mitochondria and describe its functions)
Within the cytoplasm, there are numerous double Layered elongated bodies called mitochondria. It is
composed largely of proteins and lipids.
FUNCTIONS OF MITOCHONDRIA:
1. Helps in Cellular respiration.
2. Generates and stores ATP so called as ‘Power house’ of a cell.
3. Mitochondria are engaged in oxidative metabolism
4. It is responsible for the transportation of chemical energy into biologicalenergy, in the form of ATP
5. All the enzymes involved in Kreb’s cycle are present in mitochondria.
Diagram of Mitochondria
4. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM(ER):
Within the cytoplasm of the cell, there is an extensive network of membrane arranged in plates and
tubules collectively called as endoplasmic reticulum. On the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum
there are small round bodies present called as ribosomes. The endoplasmic reticulum with the ribosomes
is called as rough endoplasmic reticulum while the endoplasmic reticulum without the ribosomes is
called as smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
FUNCTIONS OF ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM:
1. Give mechanical support, by forming skeletal network.
2. Transports enzymes and other materials throughout the cell.
3. Rough ER is the site for protein synthesis
4. Smooth ER is the site for steroid synthesis.
5. Carries protein synthesis, ATP synthesis, etc.
6. Involves in the intracellular transport.
7. Involves in the cellular metabolism.
5. GOLGI APPARATUS:
The Golgi apparatus (body) is compact and consists of parallel membrane plates and tubules.
FUNCTIONS OFGOLGI APPARATUS:
1. Synthesis and secretion of an enzymes.
2. Participates in transformation of membranes
3. Helps in formation of structure such as lysosome, acrosome.
4. Synthesize wall element like pectin, mucilage.
1. Lysosomes are called “suicidal bags” as enzymes contained in them can digestthe cell’s own
material when damaged or dead.
2. These are involved in digestion of cellular substances like proteins, lipids etc.
Que.4:Define & explain metabolism. OR
Define the terms-
Ans: Metabolism: All biochemical changes that occur in biological system are grouped together
The set of chemical reactions (Anabolic & Catabolic) that occurs in living organisms to maintain life is
called as Metabolism.
Metabolism is divided into two categories:
1. Catabolism: It is a degradative process concerned with the breakdown of complexmolecules to
simpler ones along with release of energy.
Catabolism: It is a process of degradation of complex matter into simple form the generating energy
& metabolites that provide metabolic fuel & building block for the cell.
2. Anabolism: Includes the biosynthetic reactions of formation of complex molecules from simple
ones and requiring energy.
Anabolism:It is a biosynthetic phase, uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and
Que.1:Difference between plant cell and animal cell
PLANT CELL ANIMAL CELL
Que.2:Define the terms:
1. Hydrotropic Substances: Substances having the power of making water-insoluble substances
water-soluble are called as hydrotropic substance.
Hydrotropy: Hydrotropy is the process by which water-insoluble substances are made water-soluble
by hydrotropic substance. Eg.Hippuric acid.
2. Adsorption: The process of taking the substances from the solution on the surface is called as
adsorption. It is the surface phenomenon.