Milk is a unique in that it is both consumed,
as fluid milk with minimal processing and it is the raw
material used to manufacture a wide variety of
Milk may be defined as the whole, fresh, clean, lacteal
secretion obtained by the complete milking of one or
more healthy milch animals, excluding that obtained
within 15 day before or 15 days after calving or such
periods as may be necessary to render the milk
practically colostrums-free and containing the
minimum prescribed percentages of milk fat and
6. -:MILK AND ITS COMPOSITION:-
Water Total solid
Fat Solid not fat (SNF)
True fat Associates substance
Phospholipids Cholestrol Carotene Vitamin
(A, D, E, K)
Lactose Nitrogeneous Mineral Other
Non Protein Protein
Casein Lactalbumin Lactoglobulin Protease-peptone
Pigments Dissolved gases Vitamin (B,C) Enzymes bacteria
Largest fraction of milk & ranges from 80-90%.Largest fraction of milk & ranges from 80-90%.
Serves as carrier for other constituents of milk.Serves as carrier for other constituents of milk.
MILK FATMILK FAT
The Milk fat exists in the form of small globules, whichThe Milk fat exists in the form of small globules, which
averages approximately 2-5 microns in size.averages approximately 2-5 microns in size.
Milk fat is rich source of energy & good source of vit.Milk fat is rich source of energy & good source of vit.
A & D.A & D.
% of milk fat varies in different animals & their% of milk fat varies in different animals & their
It may ranges from 1-13%.It may ranges from 1-13%.
8. MILK PROTIENMILK PROTIEN
Milk normally contains about 0.5% of nitrogen ofMilk normally contains about 0.5% of nitrogen of
which 95% constituents milk protein & 5% nonwhich 95% constituents milk protein & 5% non
protein nitrogen.protein nitrogen.
Casein is phosphoprotien, accounts for 80% ofCasein is phosphoprotien, accounts for 80% of
total protein content.total protein content.
The viscosity & white colour of milk are largelyThe viscosity & white colour of milk are largely
because of casein.because of casein.
MILK SUGAR OR LACTOSEMILK SUGAR OR LACTOSE
It occurs exclusively in mammalian milk.It occurs exclusively in mammalian milk.
The average lactose content of cow & buffalo milkThe average lactose content of cow & buffalo milk
is 4.5 & 4.8% respectively.is 4.5 & 4.8% respectively.
A number of enzymes present in milk. More thanA number of enzymes present in milk. More than
25 enzymes have been identified in cow milk.25 enzymes have been identified in cow milk.
The milk enzymes are of considerable importanceThe milk enzymes are of considerable importance
in certain aspects of milk technology. For examplein certain aspects of milk technology. For example
lipase is responsible for the development of rancidlipase is responsible for the development of rancid
flavours in milk.flavours in milk.
Milk is good source of fat soluble (Vitamins A,D,EMilk is good source of fat soluble (Vitamins A,D,E
& K) & water soluble vitamins (B).& K) & water soluble vitamins (B).
Milk is good source of Vitamin A but it is poorMilk is good source of Vitamin A but it is poor
source of Vitamin C.source of Vitamin C.
Milk is an important source of calcium, potassium,Milk is an important source of calcium, potassium,
phosphorous & magnesium.phosphorous & magnesium.
10. Properties of MilkProperties of Milk
1. Physical state of Milk:1. Physical state of Milk: The Milk constituents existsThe Milk constituents exists
partially as a solution & partially in colloidal state.partially as a solution & partially in colloidal state.
2. Acidity of Milk:2. Acidity of Milk: The titratable acidity of milk is usuallyThe titratable acidity of milk is usually
expressed as lactic acid equivalent per 100 ml. of milk & itexpressed as lactic acid equivalent per 100 ml. of milk & it
may range from 0.13 – 0.21%.may range from 0.13 – 0.21%.
3. pH of Milk:3. pH of Milk: Milk is slightly acidic in nature & its phMilk is slightly acidic in nature & its ph
value varies from 6.5 – 6.7.value varies from 6.5 – 6.7.
4. Colour of Milk:4. Colour of Milk: Milk ranges in colour from yellowishMilk ranges in colour from yellowish
creamy to creamy white. The larger the fat globules & thecreamy to creamy white. The larger the fat globules & the
higher the fat percentage , the greater intensity of the yellowhigher the fat percentage , the greater intensity of the yellow
11. 5. Flavour:5. Flavour: This is composed of smell (odour) & taste.This is composed of smell (odour) & taste.
Milk is sweet in taste. The chlorides & lactose areMilk is sweet in taste. The chlorides & lactose are
mainly responsible for taste.mainly responsible for taste.
6. Specific gravity:6. Specific gravity: The specific gravity of milk isThe specific gravity of milk is
determined by using a plunger of special shape &determined by using a plunger of special shape &
volume called lactometer.volume called lactometer.
7. Viscosity:7. Viscosity: The viscosity of milk is always higherThe viscosity of milk is always higher
than viscosity of water due to presence of dissolvedthan viscosity of water due to presence of dissolved
solids in milk. At normal temperature viscosity from 1.5–solids in milk. At normal temperature viscosity from 1.5–
8. Boiling point of milk:8. Boiling point of milk: The Boiling point of milkThe Boiling point of milk
varies from 100.17 - 101°c. This is slightly higher thanvaries from 100.17 - 101°c. This is slightly higher than
that of water due to dissolved substances in milk.that of water due to dissolved substances in milk.
12. 9. Freezing point of Milk:9. Freezing point of Milk: Milk freezes at anMilk freezes at an
average temperature of -0.55°c (range -0.5°c to -0.61°c),average temperature of -0.55°c (range -0.5°c to -0.61°c),
which is slightly lower than that of pure water (0°c).which is slightly lower than that of pure water (0°c).
10. Electrical conductivity:10. Electrical conductivity: Electrical conductivity isElectrical conductivity is
a measure of the ability of solution to carry electricala measure of the ability of solution to carry electrical
current. Value of electrical conductivity for normal milkcurrent. Value of electrical conductivity for normal milk
range from 0.003-0.005 mhos/min.range from 0.003-0.005 mhos/min.
11. Thermal conductivity:11. Thermal conductivity: It is important because itIt is important because it
determines how fast milk is heated or cooled. At 20°c,determines how fast milk is heated or cooled. At 20°c,
thermal conductivity of milk is 0.50-0.53 W/mK.thermal conductivity of milk is 0.50-0.53 W/mK.
12. Heat stability of Milk:12. Heat stability of Milk: It is defined as the lengthIt is defined as the length
of time required to induced coagulation at a givenof time required to induced coagulation at a given
temperature or temperature required to induce coagulationtemperature or temperature required to induce coagulation
in a given time.in a given time.
13. MilkMilk ProceProcessing Operations:ssing Operations:
Once th milk has been received at the milkOnce th milk has been received at the milk
processing centre, or dairy, it should beprocessing centre, or dairy, it should be
immediately strained, cooled & processed so as toimmediately strained, cooled & processed so as to
prevent any bacteriall growth.prevent any bacteriall growth.
Pasteurization is the process and applied to market
milk today. Milk are heating at least 630
C for 30
minutes, or 72°C for 15 second.
After pasteurization ,the milk is immediately cooled to
5°C or below.
16. History of pasteurization
1. Pasteurization term is first time used by
Louis Pasteur in 20 April 1862.and
eliminate bacteria in wines
2. The pasteurization of milk was adopted
18. 1. LTLT: Low temperature long time
this method commonly know as Batch or Holding
method of pasteurization and ideal temperature is
63C for 30 minute(Milk)
2. HTST: High temperature short time.
This method is know as continuous
process of pasteurization and is 72C for 15
3. UHT: Ultra high temperature. This
process was developed in 1950.and
temperature are provide 135C to 150 C for
Breakdown of milk fat globules is calledBreakdown of milk fat globules is called
Homogenization and fat globulesHomogenization and fat globules
subdivision to 2 microns or less in diameter.subdivision to 2 microns or less in diameter.
20. Effect of
homogenization on milk
1.1. Increased the viscosity of Milk.Increased the viscosity of Milk.
2.2. Reduced the milk curd tension.Reduced the milk curd tension.
3.3. More creamier structure, bland flavor.More creamier structure, bland flavor.
21. Merits & Demerits of Homogenization
1. No formation of cream layer
2. Produces soft curd and better digested
3. More palatable to brighter appearance
1. Increased cost of production
2. Greater tendency for milk
3. Curdling in cookery
22. CREAM SEPRATIONCREAM SEPRATION
The basic principle of cream sepration isThe basic principle of cream sepration is
based on the fact that density of fat (930based on the fact that density of fat (930
)) is lower than milk average 1036is lower than milk average 1036
). Hence when mlik which may be). Hence when mlik which may be
considered to be a mixture of fat (asconsidered to be a mixture of fat (as
cream) & skim milk, is subjected to eithercream) & skim milk, is subjected to either
gravity or a centrifugal force the twogravity or a centrifugal force the two
components, viz. cream & skim milk bycomponents, viz. cream & skim milk by
virtue of their differing densities, stratifyvirtue of their differing densities, stratify
from one another.from one another.
Standrdization refers to the adujestmentStandrdization refers to the adujestment
( i.e. raising or lowerin the fat and/ or solid –( i.e. raising or lowerin the fat and/ or solid –
not-fat %). Of milk to desired value, So as tonot-fat %). Of milk to desired value, So as to
confirm to some lefgal or othersconfirm to some lefgal or others
26. MIXING OF INSGREDIENTSMIXING OF INSGREDIENTS
Ice cream contains numbers of ingredientsIce cream contains numbers of ingredients
obtained from various source. Theobtained from various source. The
ingredients used in the manufacture of iceingredients used in the manufacture of ice
cream include dairy (like whole milk, skimcream include dairy (like whole milk, skim
milk, cream, frozen cream, butter, butter oilmilk, cream, frozen cream, butter, butter oil
condensed milk products,dried milk product,condensed milk products,dried milk product,
and non dairy product like sugar, stabilizerand non dairy product like sugar, stabilizer
and emulsifiers.and emulsifiers.