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(1526 -1707 A.D.)
. The beginning of the empire is
conventionally dated to the founder Babur's
victory over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the
Delhi Sultanate in the First Battle of Panipat
The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire
started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar
the Great to the throne.
During Mughal period various cities
and monumental structures of
architecture excellence were
Cities like Agra, Delhi were re-
Fatehpur - Sikri was entirely planned.
Many gardens and parks were
Important gardens developed during
o Kabul Bagh at Panipat by Babar
Indus Valley civilisation
• The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a Bronze Age
civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900
BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to
Pakistan and northwest India
• the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over
five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley
developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian
products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze,
lead, and tin).
• The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked
brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply
systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings
• The Indus valley civilisation had greatly
developed as that of ancient Mesopotamia.
• The cities had highly advanced system of town
• The city of Mohenjo-Daro as shown in fig was
located on two mounds, one 1183*546m and
other 364*273 m with the population of
• The city was built systematically.
• The street 9 m wide divided the city in 12 blocks
• The layout of street based on ‘Grid-iron Plan’.
• Houses were of varying sizes and storeys,
constructed with bricks walls.
• A series of rooms were arranged around an
open-to-sky central court.
• The residences has no direct entrance opening to
the main streets.
• Almost every house built of kiln –brick had
complete bathing establishment.
• The city had very well planned drainage
• There were manholes located at different places for
inspection and cleaning.
• Market halls, granaries, offices were neatly planned.
• The great bath of Mohenjo-Daro had a remarkable
system of filling and emptying.
• It was made water tight with layers of bitumen, and
was surrounded by toilets and private baths.
• The Indus valley culture collapsed due to