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Hydration of cement

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Hydration of Portland cement
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Hydration of cement

  2. 2.  CONTENTS 1.1 Bogue’s Compounds 1.2 Properties of the Bogue’s compounds 1.3 Hydration of the cement 1.4 Hydration of the individual cement compounds 1.4.1 Hydration of C3S Stages of hydration of C3S Controlling the hydration of C3S Effect of Temperature on C3S Hydration 1.4.2 Hydration of C2S 1.4.3 Hydration of C3A Reactions involved in hydration of C3A Formation of the hydration products from C3A Hydratrion curve for C3A 1.4.4 Hydration of C4AF
  3. 3. 1.1 BOGUE’S COMPOUND  Oxide present in the raw materials interact with one another in the kiln at high temperature to form more complex compounds.  The identification of the major compound is largely based in the work of R.H.Bogue and others and so it is often reffered as ‘Bogue’s compounds’ or ‘Bogue’s composition’.  TABLE : 1 BOGUE’S COMPOUNDS Name of compound Formulae Abbreviation Tricalcium silicate 3 Cao.SiO2 C3S Dicalcium silicate 2 Cao.SiO2 C2S Tricalcium aluminate 3Cao.Al2O3 C3A Tetracalcium aluminoferrite 4 Cao.Al2O3.Fe2O3 C4AF
  4. 4. BOGUE’S COMPOUND (CONT.) TABLE : 2 BOGUE’S COMPOUNDS Bogue’s compound Percentage by mass in cement C3S 30-50 C2S 20-45 C3A 8-12 C4AF 6-10
  5. 5. 1.2 Properties of the Bogue’s compounds  1. C3S : - It is responsible for early strength. - First 7 days strength is due to C3S. - It produces more heat of hydration - A cement with more C3S content is better for cold weather concreting.  2. C2S : - The hydration of C2S Starts after 7 days. Hence it gives strength after 7 days. - C2S hydrates and hardens slowly and provides much of the ultimate strength. - It is responsible for the later strength of the concrete. - It produces less heat of hydration.  3. C3A : - The reaction of C3A with water is very fast. - It may lead to an immediate stiffening of paste, and it is called Flash Set. - To prevent this flash set, 2-3% Gypsum is added at a time of grinding cement clinker. - The hydrated C3A do not contribute to the strength of the concrete.  4. C4AF : - C4AF hydrates rapidly. - It does not contribute to strength of the concrete.
  6. 6. Properties of the Bogue’s compounds (cont.) TABLE : 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDRATION OF CEMENT COMPOUND NAME REACTION TIME STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT SETTING TIME HEAT EVALUATION C3S Medium High Low High C2S Slow Low or High Low Low C3A Fast Low High Very High C4AF Medium Low Medium Medium
  7. 7. 1.3 Hydration of the cement  Chemical reaction of the cement when it is mix with water is called as Hydration of cement.  Hydration is the collective term describing the chemical and physical processes that takes place between cement and water.  During the hydration process silicates and alluminates are produced and results into the hard mass and this hard mass is called hydrated cement. This process is exothermic process.  Hydration process continuous still the heat and moisture are available in the cement.  Hydration of cement is very important as it is responsible for setting and hardening of concrete.
  8. 8. 1.4 Hydration of individual cement compound  1.4.1 : Hydration of C3S  2C3S + 6H = C3S2H3 + 3CH + Heat tri calcium water C-S-H C-H silicate (50-60% Solid in (20% solid in cement cement paste) paste)  C-S-H (calcium-silicate-hydrate) is the principle hydration product.  The formulae C3S2H3 for C-S-H is only approximate because the composition of C-S-H is actually variable over a quite a wide range.  C-S-H is poorly crystalline material which forms extremely small particles in the size range of colloidal matter (<1 micro meter).  C-H is the crystalline material with a fixed composition.
  9. 9. Hydration of C3S (cont.) (1) C-S-H (2) C-H
  10. 10. - Stages of hydration of C3S :- - There are some important stages of the C3S hydration, as described by the following calorimetric curve (i.e. time versus rate of heat evaluation curve)
  11. 11. Stages of hydration of C3S (Cont.)  Stage-1 :- corresponds to a period of rapid evolution of heat, which ceases within about 15 min.  Stage-2 :- corresponds to a dormant period which lasts for several hours during which the hydration is almost at halt. This is the reason why the concrete remains in plastic state for several hours.  Stage-3 :- corresponds to acceleration period starting at the end of dormant period and lasting till the rate of heat evolution reaches a maximum value. By this time (4 to 8 h) final set has been passed and early hardening has begun.  Stage-4 :- corresponds to deceleration period during which the rate of heat evolution reduces from its maximum value to a very low steady state rate(stage-5).
  12. 12. - Controlling the Hydration of C3S :-  (1) Chemical control:- The hydrolysis of the C3S (i.e., the chemical reaction between C3S and water) which results into release of calcium ions and hydroxide ions from the surface of the C3S grains, forming C- S-H and CH through crystallization of ions and increasing the pH to over 12 within a few minutes, is called as chemical control. - The chemical control (i.e. the hydrolysis of C3S) slows down quickly but continues throughout the dormant period. - During the dormant period, the increase in Ca++ and OH- concentrations continues slowly.
  13. 13. Controlling the Hydration of C3S (cont.)  (2) Nucleation Control :- When the Ca++ and OH- concentrations reach a critical value, the hydration products (C-S-H and CH) start to crystallize from solution and the hydrolysis of C3S again proceeds rapidly. - This whole process of attenuation of critical concentrations of Ca++ and OH- corresponding to which the nuclei of the C-S-H and CH crystals starts forming giving way to the further hydrolysis of C3S is termed as nucleation control. - Chemical and Physical Processes Controlling C3S Hydration.  (3) Diffusion Control :- The hydration process is said to be under diffusion control when the coating over the C3S grains, formed by layers of C-S-H, put a barrier through which water must flow to reach the un- hydrated C3S for its hydrolysis and through which ions must diffuse to reach the growing crystals.
  14. 14. - Effect of temperature on C3S Hydration - The hydration of C3S is sensitive to temperature (i.e. there is increase in the rate of hydration with increase in temperature) but only when the reaction is chemically controlled (e.g. stage 3). - Once hydration is completely diffusion-controlled in stage 5, it is much less temperature- sensitive, although the diffusion coefficient of the hydrate barrier varies with temperature. - The overall effect of temperature on the hydration of C3S is shown in the figure.
  15. 15. 1.4.2 Hydration of C2S  C2 S hydrates in a similar manner as that of C3S 2C2S + 4H - C3S2H3 + CH dicalcium water C-S-H Calcium silicate Hydroxide  But the hydration of C2S is much slower than C3S because it is a less reactive compound than C3S. This is the reason why C2S does not contribute to initial strength  Due to very low amount of heat liberated on the hydration of C2S, it is not easy to measure the low heat experimentally and therefore calorimetric curve for C2S hydration is hardly plotted.
  16. 16. 1.4.3 Hydration of C3A  In Portland cement the hydration of C3A involves reactions mostly with sulfate ions which are supplied by the dissolution of gypsum added during the manufacturing of cement  Reactions involved in the hydration of C3A :- 1. The primary initial reaction of C3A, when ample amount ofgypsum is present, is as follows: C3A + 3CsH2 + 26H - C6As3H32 tri-calcium gypsum water Ettringite aluminate - The above reaction is exothermic - Ettringite (i.e. "calcium sulfoaluminate hydrate") is the name given to anaturally occurring mineral of the same composition.
  17. 17. Reactions involved in the hydration of C3A (cont.) - Ettringite is a stable hydration product only while there is an ample supply of sulphate available - The formation of ettringite slows down the hydration of C3A by creating a diffusion barrier around unhydrated C3A particles, analogous to the behavior of C-S-H during the hydration of silicates 2. If all the sulphate is consumed before the C3A has completely hydrated, then ettringite becomes unstable and transforms calcium sulphoalluminate hydrate containing less sulphate through following reaction : C3A + C6As3H32 + 4H - 3C4AsH32 - The second product 3C4AsH32 is simply called as “monosulphoaluminate” - Monosulphoaluminate many sometimes form before ettringite if C3A reacts more rapidly with sulphate ions than they can be supplied by the gypsum to the mix water
  18. 18. Reactions involved in the hydration of C3A (cont.) - The diffusion barriEr created by the formation of ettringite is broken down during the conversation of ettringite into monosulphoaluminate and C3A is allow to reacts rapidly again. 3. When monosulphoaluminates brought into contact with a new source of sulfate ions (e.g. external source of sulfate ions), thenettringite can be reformed, as follows: C4AsH12 + 2CsH2 + 16H - C6As3H32 - This potential for reforming ettringite is the basis for sulfate attack of Portland cements when exposed to an external supply of sulfate ions. 4. If gypsum is not added in the cement, the hydration of C3A can lead to flash set due to the rapid formation of calcium aluminate hydrates (C-A-H) : C3A + 21H - C4AH13 + C2AH8 - These hydrates (C4AH13 + C2AH8) are not stable and later convert toC3AH6 (hydro garnet) C4AH13 + C2AH8 - 2C3AH6 + 9H
  19. 19. Reactions involved in the hydration of C3A (cont.) 5. When quite a small amounts of gypsum are present, there may still be unhydrated C3A present when all of the ettringite has been converted to monosulfoaluminate. In such cases, the monosulphoaluminate reacts with the unhydrated C3A forming the monosulphoaluminate solid solution [C3A(CsCH)H12] : C4AsH12 + C3A + CH + 12H  C3A(CsCH)H12  Formation of the hydration products from C3A :- It is depending upon the sulfate/C3A molar ratio, is presented in the following table :
  20. 20. Hydration curve for C3A  The calorimetric for hydrating C3A, which looks qualitatively much like the curve for C3S.  The first heat peak is completed in 10 to 15 min and then the rate of heat evolution has been reduced to a very lower value due to the formation of the ettringite barrier. The heat of hydration remains at low value till the ettringite barrier is broken by transformation of ettringite to mono-sulfo- aluminate after all the gypsum has been used to form the ettringite
  21. 21. Hydration curve for C3A (Cont.)  The more gypsum there is in cement, the longer the ettringite will remain stable  In most cements ettringite remains in stable condition for a period of 12 to 36 hours.  The rate of heat evolution starts increasing with start of ettringite conversion to mono- sulfo-aluminate and reaches to the second heat peak and then again starts decreasing approaching to a steady-state condition.
  22. 22. 1.4.4 Hydration of C4 AF  C4AF forms the same sequence of hydration products as doesC3A, with or without gypsum C4AF + 3CsH2 + 21H  C6(A,F)s3H32 + (A,F)H3 C4AF + C6(A,F)s3H32 + 7H  3C4(A,F)sH12 + (A,F)H3  The reactions are slower and involve less heat  C4AF never hydrates rapidly enough to cause flash set, andgypsum retards C4AF hydrationeven more drastically than itdoes C3A  With increase in iron content in C4AF, hydration of C4AFbecomes slower  practical experience has shown that cements low in C3A andhigh in C4AF are resistant to sulfate attack  This means that the formation of ettringite from mono-sulfo-aluminate does not occur in case of C4AF due to presence ofiron in it.