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Theodolite  & measurment
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  2. 2. GROUP OF STUDENT: Name Enrollment Number Prajapari Himanshu k. 140120106085 Patel Rahul 140120106088 Raithatha Nilesh 140120106089
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION  Theodolite is a basic surveying instrument which is use for measuring vertical and horizontal angle.  Theodolite is more precise than magnetic compass.  Magnetic compass measures the angle up to as accuracy of 30’. However a vernier theodolite measures the angles up to and accuracy of 10’’, 20”
  5. 5. Definition  A transit theodolite is one in which the telescope can be revolved through a complete revolution about its horizontal axis in a vertical plane.
  6. 6. Main Components of Transit Theodolite 1. Trivet 2. Foot Screws 3. Tri Branch 4. Leveling Head 5. Spindles 6. Lower Plate 7. Upper plate 8. A Frame 9. T Frame 10. Altitude Bubble 11. Compass 12. Tripod
  7. 7. 1. Trivet  It is a circular plate having a central, threaded hole for fixing the theodolite on tripod stand.  It is also called the base line.
  8. 8. 2. Foot Screws  Lower part – The Trivet  Upper Part – It is passes through the threaded hole in the tribrach plate.  Foot screws is used for leveling the instrument.
  9. 9. 3.Tri Branch  The upper parallel triangular plate carrying three foot screws at its ends is called the Tri branch. 4.Levelling Head.  It is consists of two parallel plates separated by the 3 leveling screws.
  10. 10.  It gives support the upper part of the instrumental and attaches it to the tripod
  11. 11. 5. Spindles & Clamp 1. Inner spindle 2. Outer Spindles  The inner axis is solid and conical and the outer spindle is hollow.
  12. 12. 6. Lower Plate  an annular horizontal plate with the graduations provided all around, from 0 to 360°, in a clockwise direction. The graduations are in degree divided in to 3 parts so that each division equals to 20 min.  Horizontal angles are measured with this plate.  The size of the theodolite is defined by the diameter of horizontal circle.
  13. 13. 7. Upper plate  Horizontal plate of smaller diameter provided with two venires. on diametrically opposite parts of its circumference.  They are used to read fractions of the horizontal circle plate graduations.  The venires are graduated in 20 min and each minute is divided in 3 to 5 parts making least count 20” or 10”.
  14. 14. 8.‘A’ Frame or Standard  Two frames are provided on the upper plate to support the telescope, the vertical circle and vertical vernier scale.  These frame are known as standard or A-frame.
  15. 15. 9. T Frame or Index bar  It consists of a vertical leg known as clipping arm and a horizontal bar called the index arm engraved with venires C and D at its ends..  It is used as seat for altitude bubble and also provides vernier reading for vertical angle measurement
  16. 16. 10. Altitude Bubble  A sensitive level tube called altitude bubble, is attached to the top of the T- frame.  This bubble is brought to the center by the clip screw.  A mirror is provided on the top of bubble.
  17. 17. 11. Compass  Sometimes a circular box compass is mounted on the vernier scale between the standards.  It is provided for taking the magnetic bearing(W.C.B) of line
  18. 18. 12. Tripod  The theodolite is mounted on a strong tripod when being used in the field.  The legs of the tripod are solid or framed. At the lower ends of the legs, pointed steel shoes are provided to get them pushed into ground.  The tripod head has male screws on which the trivet of the leveling head is screwed.
  19. 19. Thank You….