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  1. 1. Seven C’s of Effective Communication
  2. 2. Session Objectives  To learn 7C’s of Effective Communication  Look through Examples and develop more understanding  To learn 4S’s of Effective Communication  Medium of Communication  Take home assignment 
  3. 3. To compose effective written or oral messages, you must apply certain communication principles. These principles provide guideline for choice of content and style of presentation, adapted to the purpose and receiver of your message
  4. 4. Effective Communication Skills Effective Communication Skills In any business environment, adherence to the 7 C's and the 4 S's helps the sender in transmitting his message with ease and accuracy
  5. 5. Why they are called 7C’s Seven C’s are the seven most useful qualities of effective communication. They are called Seven C’s because name of each of these qualities starts with a C , and they are seven in numbers, therefore they are called Seven C’s.
  6. 6. Completeness Conciseness Clarity Correctness Concreteness Consideration Courtesy
  7. 7. Completeness The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receiver’s mind set and convey the message accordingly. A complete communication has following features :  Complete communication develops and enhances reputation of an organization.  they are cost saving as no crucial information is missing  Complete communication always gives additional information wherever required.
  8. 8. Hi everyone, I just wanted to invite you for the meeting we have planned for tomorrow! See you then, Akshay
  9. 9. Hi everyone, I just wanted to invite you for tomorrow's meeting on the new telecommuting policies. The meeting will be at 10:00 a.m. in the second-level conference room. Please let me know if you can't attend. See you then, Chris
  10. 10. Exercise You are the president of an industry association and have received the following inquiry from an out of town member, “I think I would like to attend my first meeting of the association, even though I am not acquainted with your city. Will you please tell me where the meeting is being held?  How would you reply to this letter keeping in mind Completeness of the message?
  11. 11. Conciseness Conciseness means wordiness, i.e., communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forgoing the other C’s of communication. Concise communication has following features:  It underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using excessive and needless words.  Concise message is more appealing and comprehensible to the audience.  It saves time yet require efforts also
  12. 12. Hi Matt, I wanted to touch base with you about the email marketing campaign we kind of sketched out last Thursday. I really think that our target market is definitely going to want to see the company's philanthropic efforts. I think that could make a big impact, and it would stay in their minds longer than a sales pitch. For instance, if we talk about the company's efforts to become sustainable, as well as the charity work we're doing in local schools, then the people that we want to attract are going to remember our message longer. The impact will just be greater. What do you think? Jessica
  13. 13. Hi Matt, I wanted to quickly discuss the email marketing campaign that we analyzed last Thursday. Our target market will want to know about the company's philanthropic efforts, especially our goals to become sustainable and help local schools. This would make a far greater impact, and it would stay in their minds longer than a traditional sales pitch. What do you think? Jessica
  14. 14. Exercise Find single word substitutes for the phrases  At this point of time  Due to the fact that  In due course  have no alternative but  in addition to  In accordance with your request
  15. 15. Clarity Accurately is purpose of clarity Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to achieve too much at once. Words mean the same thing to the receiver as they do to the sender. Clarity in communication has following features:  It makes understanding easier.  Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message.  Clear message makes use of exact, appropriate words.
  16. 16. Hi John, I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel, who's working in your department. He's a great asset, and I'd like to talk to you more about him when you have time. Best, Skip
  17. 17. Let's see how we could change this email to make it clear. Hi John, I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel Kedar, who's working in your department. In recent weeks, he's helped the IT department through several pressing deadlines on his own time. We've got a tough upgrade project due to run over the next three months, and his knowledge and skills would prove invaluable. Could we please have his help with this work? I'd appreciate speaking with you about this. When is it best to call you to discuss this further? Best wishes, Skip
  18. 18. Exercise Use simple words  Domicile  Remuneration  Subsequent  Statement of Account  Inadvertence
  19. 19. Correctness The term ‘ correctness’ as applied to business messages means right level of language and accuracy of facts, figures and words. Correct communication has following features:  The message is exact and correct.  It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message  Correct message has greater impact on the audience/ readers.
  20. 20. Hi Daniel, Thanks so much for meeting me at lunch today! I enjoyed our conservation, and I'm looking forward to moving ahead on our project. I'm sure that the two-weak deadline won't be an issue. Thanks again, and I'll speak to you soon! Best, Jack Miller
  21. 21. Careful…  Do the technical terms you use fit your audience's level of education or knowledge?  Have you checked your writing for grammatical errors? Remember, spell checkers won't catch everything.  Are all names and titles spelled correctly?
  22. 22. Concreteness Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather than fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. Concrete message has following features:  It is supported with specific facts and figures.  It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation.  Concrete messages are not misinterpreted.
  23. 23. Consider this advertising copy: The Lunchbox Wizard will save you time every day.
  24. 24. How much time do you spend every day packing your kids' lunches? No more! Just take a complete Lunchbox Wizard from your refrigerator each day to give your kids a healthy lunch AND have more time to play or read with them!
  25. 25. Exercise Rewrite the following in concrete form as the sentences are too general and vague.  Your efforts appreciated by all  Our product has won several prizes.  This piece of jewellery is inexpensive.
  26. 26. Consideration Consideration means preparing message with the receiver in mind. Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e, the audience’s view points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Features of considerate communication are as follows:  Emphasize on “you” approach  Empathize with the audience and exhibit interest in the audience. This will stimulate a positive reaction from the audience.  Show optimism towards your audience. Emphasize on “what is possible” rather than “what is impossible”.
  27. 27. Consideration- thing to understand
  28. 28. Traci, It is very unfortunate that your payment was received too late to permit us to ship your goods. Thanks, Michelle
  29. 29. Hi Traci, It was kind of you to send us a cheque for your order of October 10. However, your goods were mailed last Monday since our credit department assumed that you would want them as quickly as possible. Thanks, Michelle
  30. 30. Courtesy  Courtesy in message implies the message should show the sender’s expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, reflective and enthusiastic. Courteous message has following features:  Courtesy implies taking into consideration both viewpoints as well as feelings of the receiver of the message.  Courteous message is positive and focused at the audience.  It makes use of terms showing respect for the receiver of message.
  31. 31. Jeff, I wanted to let you know that I don't appreciate how your team always monopolizes the discussion at our weekly meetings. I have a lot of projects, and I really need time to get my team's progress discussed as well. So far, thanks to your department, I haven't been able to do that. Can you make sure they make time for me and my team next week? Thanks, Phil
  32. 32. Hi Jeff, I wanted to write you a quick note to ask a favor. During our weekly meetings, your team does an excellent job of highlighting their progress. But this uses some of the time available for my team to highlight theirs. I'd really appreciate it if you could give my team a little extra time each week to fully cover their progress reports. Thanks so much, and please let me know if there's anything I can do for you! Best, Phil
  33. 33. 7 C’s of communication  Courtesy : Politeness  Clarity : Clear thought and clear expression  Conciseness : Avoid irrelevant details  Correctness : Accuracy of the message  Concreteness : Be specific  Consideration : Understand the receiver  Completeness : Include all information
  34. 34. 4 S's of Business Communication An understanding of the 4 S's is equally important. Shortness Economizes.  "Brevity is the soul of wit”, it is said. The same can be said about communication.  If the message can be made brief, and verbosity done away with, then transmission and comprehension of messages is going to be faster and more effective.  Flooding messages with high sounding words does not create an impact.  Many people harbour a misconception that they can actually impress the receiver, if they carry on their expeditious travails. Little do they realize how much they have lost as the receiver has spent a major chunk of his time in trying to decipher the actual meaning of the message.
  35. 35. Simplicity Impresses  Simplicity both in the usage of words and ideas reveals a clarity in the thinking process.  It is normally a tendency that when an individual is himself confused that he tries to use equally confusing strategies to lead the receiver in a maze.  Reveal clarity in the thinking process by using simple terminology and equally simple concepts.
  36. 36. Strength Convinces The strength of a message emanates from the credibility of the sender. If the sender himself believes in a message that he is about to transmit, there is bound to be strength and conviction in whatever he tries to state. Half-hearted statements or utterances that the sender himself does not believe in add a touch of falsehood to the entire communication process.
  37. 37. Sincerity Appeals  A sincere approach to an issue is clearly evident to the receiver. If the sender is genuine, it will be reflected in the manner in which he communicates.  Suppose there is a small element of deceit involved in the interaction or on the part of the sender. If the receiver is keen and observed, he would be able to sense the make-believe situation and, business transactions, even if going full swing, would not materialize.
  38. 38. Summary “She's so cold and uncommunicative. She never shows any emotion. Why does he talk like that? I wish he would get straight to the point instead of beating around the bush that way. He's so direct and brash. Doesn't he know that it's rude to keep people waiting like this? He's an hour late! She talks so much. I get tired just listening to her talk…”
  39. 39. To Be A Good Listener Rule 1: Stop talking Rule 2: --------- Rule 3: --------- Rule 4: --------- Rule 5: --------- Rule 6: --------- Rule 7: --------- Rule 8: --------- Rule 9: --------- Rule 10: Stop talking
  40. 40. Three V’s of Communication ocal isual Erbal
  41. 41. Channel of Communication  Verbal  Non-Verbal
  42. 42. Caselet….. At the Seasons Inn . . .Mary tells Lucy, a cook’s helper, that she is short of a dishwasher for the lunch shift. When Mary asks her to fill in, Lucy looks upward and says in an irritated voice, “Sure. No problem.” As she fills the dish machine, Lucy bangs pots and pans around and slams them on the counter. She also breaks several plates and saucers.
  43. 43. Consequences……  If Mary reads Lucy’s nonverbal communication correctly, she would realize that Lucy was probably upset about filling in for the dishwasher. Though she told Mary, she was glad to help, Lucy’s vocal and visual communication give a different message. If Mary doesn’t want to lose Lucy and wants to avoid more broken dishes, she should speak with Lucy. Her angry actions may be related to something that happened outside of work, but Lucy needs to know that her behavior is unacceptable.
  44. 44. Solution……  Mary should approach Lucy immediately and discuss the difference between what she said and how she’s acting. For example, Mary might say, “Lucy, you said you’d have ‘no problem’ washing dishes. Now you seem upset. What’s the matter?”
  45. 45. Organisation Structure An organisation’s structure can depend on its size, the sector it operates in (public, private, or ‘third sector’ i.e. voluntary or charitable), the number of people it employs and its physical resources. A classic example of organisational structure is the pyramid, which clearly highlights a hierarchical (or vertical) structure where communication generally has to move through each level.
  46. 46. Channels of Communication Formal Communication Formal Communication refers to the official communication which takes place following the chain of command in the organisation. The organisation structure reflecting superior-subordinate relationship determines the flow of formal communication. According to the direction of flow, formal communication may be of four types : (i) Downward ; (ii)upward ; (iii) Horizontal ; (iv) Diagonal
  47. 47. Advantages of Formal Communication  Orderly flow of Communication  Authentic Information  Identified Source Disadvantges of Formal Communication  Time Consuming  Lack of Personal Touch  Expensive
  48. 48. Channels of Communication Informal Communication Communication between individuals and groups which are not officially recognised is known as informal communication. The flow of informal communication cuts across the official lines of communication. Informal communication is known as ‘grapevine’. Grapevine – The network or pathway of informal communication is known as grapevine.
  49. 49. Advantages of Informal Communication  Social Relations  Need Satisfaction  Speed  Supporting the Formal Channel Disadvantages of Informal Communication  Incomplete Information  Distortion  Unreliability  Leakage
  50. 50. Grapevine contd..  It transmits information in every direction throughout the organization .  Being unrestricted by formal policies abd procedures, transmits information rapidly.  Grapevine is selective with regard to the person who receives the information.  Grapevine generally occurs orally  Grapevine does not follow a fixed pattern as in the case of formal communication. Features of Grapevine :
  51. 51. Formal vs. Informal Communication Formal Communication Informal Communication
  52. 52.  Verbal Medium a. Oral b. Written  Non - Verbal Medium a. Sign language b. Body language c. Para Language d. Space, surrounding and time  Artificial Medium Medium of Communication
  53. 53. Oral communication
  54. 54. MEANING  Oral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation.  Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required.  Face to face communication (meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and trust.
  55. 55. Advantages of Oral Communication  Facial expressions and gestures make communication effective  It is the best medium for discussions as negotiation, interview, counseling etc.  Communicator can get known the reaction of message on receiver through his gestures & expressions & tone  There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication as it is interpersonal.  There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for allowing changes in the decisions previously taken.  The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions can be made quickly without any delay.  Oral communication is not only time saving,but it also saves upon money and efforts.
  56. 56. Advantages of Oral Communication Cont’d  Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts, disputes and many issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them over.  Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy.  Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale among organizational employees.  Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidential information/matter.
  57. 57. Disadvantages/Limitations of Oral Communication  It is not possible while dealing a large group.  It is ineffective when listener is not attentive and different perceptions  It can not retain for longer time as permanent record.  Relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient as business communication is formal and very organized.  Oral communication is less authentic than written communication as they are informal and not as organized as written communication.  Oral communication is time-saving as far as daily interactions are concerned, but in case of meetings, long speeches consume lot of time and are unproductive at times.  Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are unsteady.
  58. 58. Disadvantages/Limitations of Oral Communication Cont’d  There may be misunderstandings as the information is not complete and may lack essentials.  It requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of the receivers/audience.  Oral communication (such as speeches) is not frequently used as legal records except in investigation work.
  59. 59. FORMS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION Oral Communication includes-  Lectures  Speech  Group discussion  Social gatherings  Interview  Conference & Meeting
  60. 60. OTHER FORMS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION 1. Face to face 2. Conference 3. Demonstration 4. Group discussion 5. Press conference 6. Radio 7. Demonstration 8. Meeting 9. Rumors 10. Oral report
  61. 61. Principles of Successful Oral Communication  Clarity of expression  Make communication a two-way process  Develop trust by creating listeners interest  Be precise, avoid hackneyed  Avoid communication overload, easy flow  Overcoming barriers (time, distance & noise)  Timely feedback
  62. 62.  Communication & Listening Skills  Correct choice of medium  Strong conviction  Sequence, coherence and consistency in contents  Economical, Accurate, Empathetic  Identify barriers & try to rectify the problem  Go for appropriate body language
  63. 63. One of the best methods to communicate Writing is one of the oldest known forms of communication In today’s age of information and technology, writing has become a lost art
  65. 65. The writing process first evolved from economic necessity in the ancient near east. Archaeologist Denise Schmandt- Besserat determined the link between previously uncategorized clay "tokens" and the first known writing, cuneiform(is one of the earliest known forms of written expression, used in Persia and Assyria around the 30th century BC). Clay tokens were replaced over time by the written documents to avoid the complexity of using the clay token.
  66. 66. cont . Writing is an extension of human language across time and space. Writing most likely began as a consequence of political expansion in ancient cultures, which needed reliable means for transmitting information, maintaining financial accounts, keeping historical records, and similar activities. Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration outgrew the power of memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form.
  67. 67. cont . Researchers divide the progression of written communication into three revolutionary stages called "Information Communication Revolutions" During the first stage, written communication first emerged through the use of pictograms. The pictograms were made in stone, hence written communication was not yet mobile. During the second stage, writing began to appear on paper, papyrus, clay, wax, etc. Common alphabets were introduced and allowed for the uniformity of language across large distances. A leap in technology occurred when the Gutenberg printing-press was invented in the 15th century The third stage is characterized by the transfer of information through controlled waves and electronic signals.
  68. 68. ADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION  Creates a permanent record  Allows you to store information for future reference  Easily distributed  All recipients receive the same information  Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organization.  It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record maintenance is required.
  69. 69. cont . Written communication is more precise and explicit. Effective written communication develops and enhances an organization’s image. It provides ready records and references. It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the grounds of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge. Necessary for legal and binding documentation
  70. 70. DISADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMUNICATION Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters. Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous. Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate. The encoding and sending of message takes time.
  71. 71. cont . Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on organization’s reputation. Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involved
  72. 72. COMMON ETIQUETTES IN WRITTEN COMMUNICATION what we need to keep in mind while communicating in writing. While written communication affords greater flexibility, since it can be edited and both composed and read at leisure or at one's pace, a great deal of care needs to be taken, in order to ensure its effectiveness; as it can serve as a point of reference, which one can turn to time and again, thus creating a more lasting impact.
  73. 73. 1. FOCUS ON FORMAT The various formal writing forms have a pre-determined, universally accepted format that accompanies them. This format, which is largely based on universal writing conventions, serves to facilitate communication, by eliminating miscommunication that may result through random writing styles. Moreover, these formats are likely to change with time, due to the evolving nature of communication and/or technology. For example, the semi block format that was earlier the most relied upon format for letter writing has now given way to the full block format, after the wide spread use of computers.
  74. 74. 2. STUCTURING OF THE CONTENT Introduction, Body and Conclusion: While writing one should ensure that the content is well organized, with the overview/basic details comprising the introduction all major points with their explanation and exemplification constituting the body (preferably divided into a separate paragraph each for every new point, with titles and subtitles, if necessary).
  75. 75. 3. ENSURING CONNECTIVITY The content that comprises a piece of writing should reflect fluency and should be connected through a logical flow of thought, in order to prevent misinterpretation and catch the attention of the reader. Moreover, care should be taken to ensure that the flow is not brought about through a forced/deliberate use of connectives , as this make the piece extremely uninteresting and artificial. Lack of connectivity can often lead to communication gaps, misinterpretation and doubts.
  76. 76. 4 . TEMPERING THE CONTENT AS PER THE LEVEL OF FORMALITY The level of formality that is shared between the sender and receiver should define the use of salutations, the vocabulary, the content, the format and even the medium. Though not integral to the matter communicated, this courtesy helps in creating a balanced impression about the communicator. Tone your communication bearing in mind how formal or casual your relationship is with the receiver.
  77. 77. 5. STEERING CLEAR OF SHORT FORM  People may not be aware of the meaning of various short forms and may thus find it difficult to interpret them. Moreover, short forms can at time be culture specific or even organization specific and may thus unnecessarily complicate the communication.  Life in 140 characters is ok for twitter, not otherwise.
  78. 78. 6. IMPORTANCE OF GRAMMAR, SPELLING AND PUNCTUATION Improper grammar can at worst cause miscommunication and at least result in unwanted humour and should be thus avoided. So too, spellings can create the same effect or can even reflect a careless attitude on part of the sender. Finally, effective use of punctuations facilitates reading and interpretation and can in rare cases even prevent a completely different meaning, which can result in miscommunication. Bad grammar and spellings can land you in trouble even today.
  79. 79. cont . Pic:1 Pic:2
  80. 80. 7. SENSITIVITY TO THE AUDIENCE One needs to be aware of and sensitive to the emotions, need and nature of the audience in choosing the vocabulary, content, illustrations, formats and medium of communication, as a discomfort in the audience would hamper rather than facilitate communication. Don't take your audience for granted. Make sure they understand what you're talking.
  81. 81. 8. IMPORTANCE OF CREATIVITY In order to hold the readers' attention one needs to be creative to break the tedium of writing and prevent monotony from creeping in. This is especially true in the case of all detailed writing that seeks to hold the readers' attention. Make sure your communication doesn't end up in a pile of garbage. Be a little creative.
  82. 82. 9. AVOIDING EXCESSIVE USE OF JARGON Excessive use of jargon can put off a reader, who may not read further, as, unlike a captive audience, the choice of whether to participate in the communication rests considerably with the reader. Excessive use of jargon hasn't taken anyone anywhere
  83. 83. 10. AWARENESS OF THE AUDIENCE/MEDIUM The medium needs to be chosen, as per its suitability to the audience/content; while the content would need tempering as per the medium/audience. For example, while an elaborate message can be sent via a letter or an email, an sms, the same content may have to be heavily edited. Like all effective communication, good writing could be said to occur when the gap between 'what one desires to say and what one is constrained to mean' is negligible or almost non- existent. Making points that are going over your audiences' heads... be aware of who you're speaking to.
  84. 84. GOOD WRITING: Features Completeness: all information needed is provided Correctness: relevant and precise information Credibility: support your argument Clarity: should not be vague, confusing, ambiguous Conciseness: to the point Consideration: anticipate the reader’s reaction Vitality: use the active voice rather than the passive voice Avoid the Passive Voice: Instead of writing “The program was planned by Dane,” write, “Dane planned the program.”
  85. 85. DIFFERENT WRITING STYLES There are three types of writing styles:  Colloquial  Casual  Formal
  86. 86. COLLOQUIAL Colloquial language is an informal, conversational style of writing. It differs from standard English in that it often makes use of colourful expressions, slang, and regional phrases. As a result, it can be difficult to understand for a person from a different region or country.
  87. 87. CASUAL Casual language involves everyday words and expressions in a familiar group context, such as conversations with family or close friends. The emphasis is on the communication interaction itself, and less about the hierarchy, power, control, or social rank of the individuals communicating.
  88. 88. FORMAL In business writing, the appropriate style will have a degree of formality. Formal language is communication that focuses on professional expression with attention to rules, protocol, and appearance. It is characterized by its vocabulary and the grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence. That is, writers using a formal style tend to use a more sophisticated vocabulary.
  89. 89. cont . Which style you use will depend on your audience, and often whether your communication is going to be read only by those in your organization (internal communications) or by those outside the organization, (external communications).
  90. 90. Oral vs Written Communication Oral Communication Written Communication
  91. 91. Communication Networks Networks show information flows in an organization.  Wheel Network: information flow to and from one central member.  Chain Network: members communicate with people next to them in sequence. Wheel and Chain networks provide for little interaction.  Circle Network: members communicate with others close to them in terms of expertise, office location, etc.  All-Channel Network: found in teams, with high levels of communications between each member and all others.
  92. 92. Communication Networks in Groups & Teams Wheel Network Circle Network Chain Network All Channel Network
  93. 93. Organization Communication Networks Organization chart depicts formal reporting channels.  Communication is informal and flows around issues, goals, and projects.  Vertical Communication: goes up and down the corporate hierarchy.  Horizontal Communication: between employees of the same level. Informal communications can span levels and departments.  Grapevine: informal network carrying unofficial information through the firm.
  94. 94. Organizational Communications Network Formal Communication Informal Communication
  95. 95. Rumours in the Workplace  Rumour is a grapevine information which is communicated without authentic standards of evidence being present.  Rumours in the workplace can lead to hurt feelings and may mean employees have to work in a hostile environment. Whether a rumour is true or not, the outcome of spreading it can be damaging.  Employers have a responsibility to try to control the spread of workplace rumours to ensure that the work environment is a positive place for all employees. This may seem to be a daunting task, but understanding the origins of rumours and why people start them in the first place can help employers control their spread..
  96. 96. Knowledge Check Informal communication leads to  Negligence and disobedience  The successful output  Determined result  Wastage of time
  97. 97. The greatest concern managers have with grapevine information is its  Speed  Context  Accuracy  Timing
  98. 98. _____________communication in an organization usually takes place in the mind of the individual to himself.  Interpersonal communication  Meta communication  Mass communication  Intrapersonal communication