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Food hygiene and food surveillance

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introduction of food hygiene, food additives, food processing, sanitation of food establishment, food handlers, conservation of nutrients, before, during and after food preparation, food fortification, food adulteration, food standards, PFA act, milk hygiene, pasteurization of milk, tests of pasteurization, meat hygiene, slaughterhouse hygiene, fish hygiene, egg hygiene, along with references.

Transcripción

  1. 1. -DR. SUNAINA KUMTHEKAR JR3, DEPT. OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE GMC, AURANGABAD
  2. 2. CONTENT 1. Introduction 2. Food additives 3. Food processing 4. Sanitation of food establishment 5. Conservation of nutrients 6. Food fortification 7. Food adulteration 8. Milk Hygiene 9. Meat hygiene
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Food hygiene- “Food hygiene are the conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety of food from production to consumption.”
  4. 4. FOOD ADDITIVES  Addition of ‘non-nutritious’ substances to food, in small quantity, to improve appearance, flavor & storage properties. • Coloring agent • Flavoring agent • Sweetening agent Cat1- Direct • Pesticides • RodenticidesCat II- Indirect • Lead chromate • feSO4 • Metallic yellow Prohibited additives
  5. 5.  Effects of food additives- Allergy, food poisoning, carcinogenicity  Ex- Bread, biscuit, cake, jam, jellies, soft drinks etc.  Adulterated = if > permissible level  Printed on label- Nature & quantity of additive  Govt. regulations- PFA act & Fruit products order
  6. 6. FOOD PROCESSING Parboiling Puffing / parching Sprouting / germination Fermenting Liming “Set of techniques used to transform raw ingredient into food or to transform food into other forms for consumption.”
  7. 7. SANITATION OF FOOD ESTABLISHMENT (Restaurant, Eating Places) 1. Location 2. Floor 3. Rooms 4. Walls 5. Lighting & Ventillation 6. Kitchen 7. Store room & furniture 8. Collection of refuse
  8. 8. 1. Location- not near open drainage, stable, manure pit 2. Floor- higher than adjoing land, impervious, easy to keep clean 3. Rooms-whr meals r served shall not <100sq ft. accommodate max 10 pers 4. Walls-upto 3ft.smooth, impervious, easily washable 5. Lighting & Ventillation-ample natural lighting aided by artificial wth gud circular air 6. Kitchen-floor space- min 60sqft. Window opening- to be 25% of floor ar., flooe-impervious easy to wash non slippery, doors windows-rat n fly proof,self closing type. Ventillators-2% of floor ar in addn to smoke pipes. 7. Store room & furniture-separate room for cooked n raw foods, rat n vermin proof.. Strong furniture easy to clean n dry 8. Collection of refuse- in covered, impervious bins, disposed off twice a day 9. Water suppl-independnt.adequate,continous
  9. 9. Food handlers- 1. Pre-placement medical examination 2. Day to day health appraisal 3. Abstain from duty if infection present 4. Periodic medical check up & prompt t/t 5. Education of food handlers. 6. Maintain high std of personal hygiene- Hairs, Hands,
  10. 10. CONSERVATION OF NUTRIENTS Before • Air tight container • Sprouting • Washing wth min water • Avoid too small & too early cutting During • Veg in boiling water • Not >15min • No baking soda • Milk boiling • Add salt late • Little acid • Steam heating After • Avoid repeated reheating • Eat food as early as possible
  11. 11. FOOD FORTIFICATION  Def- “Process whereby nutrients are added to foods to maintain or improve the quality of diet of a group, a community , or a population”  Food vehicle  Fortificant  Food enrichment- Replacing nutrients lost in processing.
  12. 12.  Need for fortification- Micronutrient deficiency  Ex. 1. Vanaspati Ghee - Vit A & D 2. Common salt- Twin fortification 3. Wheat flour- Groundnut flour, lysine 4. Fluoridation of water
  13. 13. Choosing a fortificant 1. Regular diet by community 2. Stable 3. Non hazardous 4. No change in smell, taste n appearance 5. Cost
  14. 14. FOOD ADULTERATION  Def- “Process of mixing, substitution, concealing the quality, putting up decomposed foods for sale, misbranding or giving false labels & addition of toxicants.”  Traders – Greed for money  Disadv: Paying more & at risk
  15. 15. FOOD STANDARDS Codex alimentarius commission PFA std AGMARK std ISI std
  16. 16. PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION (PFA ACT 1954)  Objectives : Ensure, protect, prevent  Rules by central body c/a “Central committee for food std.”  Enforced by state Govt.  State Govt. appoint- Food Analyst & Food Inspector  Chain of 82 state food labs & 4 central labs
  17. 17.  Punishment 1. Import, manufacture, storage, sale or distribution of any food article which is adulterated by allowing its quality or purity to fall 2. Giving a false warranty in writing in respect of any food article. 3. Preventing a food inspector from taking a sample 4. Injurious to health 5. Likely to cause death or grievous bodily harm.  Health education approach
  18. 18. Milk hygiene Meat hygiene Fish Egg
  19. 19. MILK HYGIENE  Source of infection 1. Dairy animal 2. Human handler 3. Environment/ premises 4. Milk vessels  After drawn - cooled immediately to <10ºC
  20. 20. PASTEURIZATION OF MILK 1 Holders method- 63-66ºC (30min) to 5ºC 2 HTST- 72ºC (15sec) to 4ºC 3 UHT- 125ºC few sec
  21. 21.  Kills 90% bact. Heat resistant tubercle bacillus, Q fever org. Does not kill thermoduric bact. nor bact. Spores.
  22. 22. TESTS FOR PASTEURIZATION Phosphatase test- 60ºC (30min) Std. plate count- 30k/ml Coliform count- Ab/ml Methylene blue reduction test
  23. 23. • Phosphatase test- 60ºc (30min)-addition of buffer disod.phenyl phosphate nd incubated.If enz present, releases phenol which is indicated by adding Folin’s reagent turns milk blue=enz present=not pasteurized / /addition of raw milk • Std. Plate count- 30k/ml permissible limit of bact. • Coliform count- ab/ml-should destroyed by pasteurization. • Methylene blue reduction test-to detect destruction of bacilli.1ml methyln blue+10ml milk-incub in water bath for 5hrs. Discoloration=presence of bact.
  24. 24. MEAT HYGIENE Meat – various tissues of animal origin. Diseases- Tapeworm infestation, Bacterial infestation. • Meat inspection- 1. Proper inspection by veterinary staff. 2. AM & PM examination  Good meat- i. Not pale pink/ deep purple, slimy, not shrink on cooking ii. Firm n elastic with agreeable odour, marble appearance
  25. 25. SLAUGHTER HOUSE STD. (Under model public health act 1955 INDIA) 1. Location 2. Structure – floor n walls 3. Disposal of waste- Blood, garbage not into public sewers 4. Water supply- 5. Instrument- 6. Other animals- 7. Storage of meat- For overnight, temp <5ºC
  26. 26. FISH HYGIENE Signs of fresh fish- 1. Firm n stiff to touch 2. When held flat on hand, tail should not drop 3. Eyes, gills 4. Scales- not easily detachable  Decomposition begins- flaccid body, blood-dull red wth offensive odor  Diseases  Tinned fish- Inspection of tin
  27. 27. EGG HYGIENE  Freshly laid- sterile  Pathogenic salmonella- penetrate cracked shell
  28. 28. REFERENCES 1. K. Park, Parks’s textbook of preventive & social medicine, 25th edition, Feb 2019, pages 710-716. 2. P. Agrawal, DART, fssai, pages 6-36 3. AH Suryakantha, Community medicine with recent advances, 4th edition 2017, pages 180-187 4. R. Bhalwar, Textbook of community medicine, 2nd edition 2018, pages 470-474, 481-490. 5. https://ffrc.fssai.gov.in 6. https://www.indiafilings.com/learn/punishment-food- adulteration-fssai 7. J.P. Baride, A.P.Kulkarni, Textbook of community medicine, 3rd edition, 2006, pages 720-725. 8. https://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/food-

Notas del editor

  • Cat 2 contaminants incidental through packing, processing, farming or envirnm condn…
  • Nitrite n nitrate leads to prodn of toxic subs eg. Nitrosamine (carcinogenic)
  • Infec trans by food handlers diarh,dysntry,typh,paratyph fever,enterovirus,viral hept,staph,strepto,salmonellosis..Person wth h/o typhoid fever,dipth,chr dys,tb,CD-should not be employed. Educ about hygiene,handler,insect nd rodent control is best means of promoting food hygiene.
  • ¼ people in world.A-2500IU, D-175, KI-40ppm, feso4-1000ppm, wheat-feb1970 GOI launched prgm in mumbai for fortificn of wheat wth vit n minerl n for incres protein by edible grndnut flr
  • Vehicle fortified must consumed consistently as part of regular diet by most of popln. Stable under extreme conditions of cooking, delivery, storage. Amount must provide effective supplement for low consumers while no hazard if taken in excess
  • Social evil, at risk of injurous to health EXmustard oil wth arg-epidemic dropsy.. Edible oil wth trycresyn phosphate (TCP)-paralysis n death
  • Amendments.1965, 76, 86...pune., mysore, kolkata, gaziabad
  • Healthy clean animal, healthy udder, sanitary premises, milk vessels keep sterile,covered.. Handler free from CD, wash hands n arms
  • Milk should kept cold until reaches consumer.. Hygienically produced pasteurized milk has keeping quality not >8-12hrs at 18ºC
  • AM rej.emaciation,exhaustion,preg,sheep-pox,actinomyces,brucellosis,diarh,infectDis..PM Rej-liver fluke,abscess,hydatidosis,septicmia,tb,inf liv,lung
  • is place whr animal are killed for purpose of consumption of the flesh. Location.min100ft away from residential ar.
  • Bright red gills, prominent n clear eyes.. Intermediate host of tapeworm..carry infn vib hemolyticus(food poisoning),salmonella sp(salm),clost.botulinum(botulism), certain fish- food poisoning & urticaria
  • is place whr animal are killed whose flesh is intended for human consumption.
  • Descripción

    introduction of food hygiene, food additives, food processing, sanitation of food establishment, food handlers, conservation of nutrients, before, during and after food preparation, food fortification, food adulteration, food standards, PFA act, milk hygiene, pasteurization of milk, tests of pasteurization, meat hygiene, slaughterhouse hygiene, fish hygiene, egg hygiene, along with references.

    Transcripción

    1. 1. -DR. SUNAINA KUMTHEKAR JR3, DEPT. OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE GMC, AURANGABAD
    2. 2. CONTENT 1. Introduction 2. Food additives 3. Food processing 4. Sanitation of food establishment 5. Conservation of nutrients 6. Food fortification 7. Food adulteration 8. Milk Hygiene 9. Meat hygiene
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION Food hygiene- “Food hygiene are the conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety of food from production to consumption.”
    4. 4. FOOD ADDITIVES  Addition of ‘non-nutritious’ substances to food, in small quantity, to improve appearance, flavor & storage properties. • Coloring agent • Flavoring agent • Sweetening agent Cat1- Direct • Pesticides • RodenticidesCat II- Indirect • Lead chromate • feSO4 • Metallic yellow Prohibited additives
    5. 5.  Effects of food additives- Allergy, food poisoning, carcinogenicity  Ex- Bread, biscuit, cake, jam, jellies, soft drinks etc.  Adulterated = if > permissible level  Printed on label- Nature & quantity of additive  Govt. regulations- PFA act & Fruit products order
    6. 6. FOOD PROCESSING Parboiling Puffing / parching Sprouting / germination Fermenting Liming “Set of techniques used to transform raw ingredient into food or to transform food into other forms for consumption.”
    7. 7. SANITATION OF FOOD ESTABLISHMENT (Restaurant, Eating Places) 1. Location 2. Floor 3. Rooms 4. Walls 5. Lighting & Ventillation 6. Kitchen 7. Store room & furniture 8. Collection of refuse
    8. 8. 1. Location- not near open drainage, stable, manure pit 2. Floor- higher than adjoing land, impervious, easy to keep clean 3. Rooms-whr meals r served shall not <100sq ft. accommodate max 10 pers 4. Walls-upto 3ft.smooth, impervious, easily washable 5. Lighting & Ventillation-ample natural lighting aided by artificial wth gud circular air 6. Kitchen-floor space- min 60sqft. Window opening- to be 25% of floor ar., flooe-impervious easy to wash non slippery, doors windows-rat n fly proof,self closing type. Ventillators-2% of floor ar in addn to smoke pipes. 7. Store room & furniture-separate room for cooked n raw foods, rat n vermin proof.. Strong furniture easy to clean n dry 8. Collection of refuse- in covered, impervious bins, disposed off twice a day 9. Water suppl-independnt.adequate,continous
    9. 9. Food handlers- 1. Pre-placement medical examination 2. Day to day health appraisal 3. Abstain from duty if infection present 4. Periodic medical check up & prompt t/t 5. Education of food handlers. 6. Maintain high std of personal hygiene- Hairs, Hands,
    10. 10. CONSERVATION OF NUTRIENTS Before • Air tight container • Sprouting • Washing wth min water • Avoid too small & too early cutting During • Veg in boiling water • Not >15min • No baking soda • Milk boiling • Add salt late • Little acid • Steam heating After • Avoid repeated reheating • Eat food as early as possible
    11. 11. FOOD FORTIFICATION  Def- “Process whereby nutrients are added to foods to maintain or improve the quality of diet of a group, a community , or a population”  Food vehicle  Fortificant  Food enrichment- Replacing nutrients lost in processing.
    12. 12.  Need for fortification- Micronutrient deficiency  Ex. 1. Vanaspati Ghee - Vit A & D 2. Common salt- Twin fortification 3. Wheat flour- Groundnut flour, lysine 4. Fluoridation of water
    13. 13. Choosing a fortificant 1. Regular diet by community 2. Stable 3. Non hazardous 4. No change in smell, taste n appearance 5. Cost
    14. 14. FOOD ADULTERATION  Def- “Process of mixing, substitution, concealing the quality, putting up decomposed foods for sale, misbranding or giving false labels & addition of toxicants.”  Traders – Greed for money  Disadv: Paying more & at risk
    15. 15. FOOD STANDARDS Codex alimentarius commission PFA std AGMARK std ISI std
    16. 16. PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION (PFA ACT 1954)  Objectives : Ensure, protect, prevent  Rules by central body c/a “Central committee for food std.”  Enforced by state Govt.  State Govt. appoint- Food Analyst & Food Inspector  Chain of 82 state food labs & 4 central labs
    17. 17.  Punishment 1. Import, manufacture, storage, sale or distribution of any food article which is adulterated by allowing its quality or purity to fall 2. Giving a false warranty in writing in respect of any food article. 3. Preventing a food inspector from taking a sample 4. Injurious to health 5. Likely to cause death or grievous bodily harm.  Health education approach
    18. 18. Milk hygiene Meat hygiene Fish Egg
    19. 19. MILK HYGIENE  Source of infection 1. Dairy animal 2. Human handler 3. Environment/ premises 4. Milk vessels  After drawn - cooled immediately to <10ºC
    20. 20. PASTEURIZATION OF MILK 1 Holders method- 63-66ºC (30min) to 5ºC 2 HTST- 72ºC (15sec) to 4ºC 3 UHT- 125ºC few sec
    21. 21.  Kills 90% bact. Heat resistant tubercle bacillus, Q fever org. Does not kill thermoduric bact. nor bact. Spores.
    22. 22. TESTS FOR PASTEURIZATION Phosphatase test- 60ºC (30min) Std. plate count- 30k/ml Coliform count- Ab/ml Methylene blue reduction test
    23. 23. • Phosphatase test- 60ºc (30min)-addition of buffer disod.phenyl phosphate nd incubated.If enz present, releases phenol which is indicated by adding Folin’s reagent turns milk blue=enz present=not pasteurized / /addition of raw milk • Std. Plate count- 30k/ml permissible limit of bact. • Coliform count- ab/ml-should destroyed by pasteurization. • Methylene blue reduction test-to detect destruction of bacilli.1ml methyln blue+10ml milk-incub in water bath for 5hrs. Discoloration=presence of bact.
    24. 24. MEAT HYGIENE Meat – various tissues of animal origin. Diseases- Tapeworm infestation, Bacterial infestation. • Meat inspection- 1. Proper inspection by veterinary staff. 2. AM & PM examination  Good meat- i. Not pale pink/ deep purple, slimy, not shrink on cooking ii. Firm n elastic with agreeable odour, marble appearance
    25. 25. SLAUGHTER HOUSE STD. (Under model public health act 1955 INDIA) 1. Location 2. Structure – floor n walls 3. Disposal of waste- Blood, garbage not into public sewers 4. Water supply- 5. Instrument- 6. Other animals- 7. Storage of meat- For overnight, temp <5ºC
    26. 26. FISH HYGIENE Signs of fresh fish- 1. Firm n stiff to touch 2. When held flat on hand, tail should not drop 3. Eyes, gills 4. Scales- not easily detachable  Decomposition begins- flaccid body, blood-dull red wth offensive odor  Diseases  Tinned fish- Inspection of tin
    27. 27. EGG HYGIENE  Freshly laid- sterile  Pathogenic salmonella- penetrate cracked shell
    28. 28. REFERENCES 1. K. Park, Parks’s textbook of preventive & social medicine, 25th edition, Feb 2019, pages 710-716. 2. P. Agrawal, DART, fssai, pages 6-36 3. AH Suryakantha, Community medicine with recent advances, 4th edition 2017, pages 180-187 4. R. Bhalwar, Textbook of community medicine, 2nd edition 2018, pages 470-474, 481-490. 5. https://ffrc.fssai.gov.in 6. https://www.indiafilings.com/learn/punishment-food- adulteration-fssai 7. J.P. Baride, A.P.Kulkarni, Textbook of community medicine, 3rd edition, 2006, pages 720-725. 8. https://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/food-

    Notas del editor

  • Cat 2 contaminants incidental through packing, processing, farming or envirnm condn…
  • Nitrite n nitrate leads to prodn of toxic subs eg. Nitrosamine (carcinogenic)
  • Infec trans by food handlers diarh,dysntry,typh,paratyph fever,enterovirus,viral hept,staph,strepto,salmonellosis..Person wth h/o typhoid fever,dipth,chr dys,tb,CD-should not be employed. Educ about hygiene,handler,insect nd rodent control is best means of promoting food hygiene.
  • ¼ people in world.A-2500IU, D-175, KI-40ppm, feso4-1000ppm, wheat-feb1970 GOI launched prgm in mumbai for fortificn of wheat wth vit n minerl n for incres protein by edible grndnut flr
  • Vehicle fortified must consumed consistently as part of regular diet by most of popln. Stable under extreme conditions of cooking, delivery, storage. Amount must provide effective supplement for low consumers while no hazard if taken in excess
  • Social evil, at risk of injurous to health EXmustard oil wth arg-epidemic dropsy.. Edible oil wth trycresyn phosphate (TCP)-paralysis n death
  • Amendments.1965, 76, 86...pune., mysore, kolkata, gaziabad
  • Healthy clean animal, healthy udder, sanitary premises, milk vessels keep sterile,covered.. Handler free from CD, wash hands n arms
  • Milk should kept cold until reaches consumer.. Hygienically produced pasteurized milk has keeping quality not >8-12hrs at 18ºC
  • AM rej.emaciation,exhaustion,preg,sheep-pox,actinomyces,brucellosis,diarh,infectDis..PM Rej-liver fluke,abscess,hydatidosis,septicmia,tb,inf liv,lung
  • is place whr animal are killed for purpose of consumption of the flesh. Location.min100ft away from residential ar.
  • Bright red gills, prominent n clear eyes.. Intermediate host of tapeworm..carry infn vib hemolyticus(food poisoning),salmonella sp(salm),clost.botulinum(botulism), certain fish- food poisoning & urticaria
  • is place whr animal are killed whose flesh is intended for human consumption.
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