Assessment of Human-leopard conflict
A case study in Bhimsen Gaupalika of Gorkha District, Nepal
Dr. Gandhiv Kafle
Chandesh Pd. Patel
Exam Roll No. 289
Mr. Mahesh Poudel
According to Madden (2006), human-wildlife conflict is a complex
combination of characteristics, it includes cases where wildlife
threatens, attacks, injures, or kills humans as well as livestock, crops
or property on the other hand humans deliberately injure, abuse, or
kill wildlife because of perceived or actual threats to their property,
livelihoods, lifestyle, person, family or community.
Human population growth and the associated increase in rates of
resources use, habitat modification and fragmentation are forcing
wild animals to live in increasing proximity to humans, which are
resulted as major causes of human-wildlife conflict (In skip and Zim
Due to lack of knowledge and leopard (Panthera pardus)
predatory habit, they have been perceived as a threat to
human life and livestock. Local people and communities
often hold negative attitudes, when carnivores prey upon
livestock and destroy property and crops (Oli et al.,1994;
Human-wildlife conflict is one of the growing challenges
in biodiversity conservation and management, especially in
developing countries. The main threats are for large
carnivores are human-wildlife conflict and retaliatory
killings reducing in prey base, poaching for trade-in fur and
bone (Kabir et al., 2014).
Leopards are known to prey on livestock throughout their
range that makes leopards vulnerable to retaliatory killings
and reduces public support for conservation (Dhungana et al.,
It was realized that without good relations and co-operations
of the local people, no conservation measures would be
effective to the common leopard. Similarly, the effectiveness
of compensation payments in mitigating and resolving human
- wildlife conflict is globally debated (Karanth et al., 2018).
Leopard is not a protected mammal of Nepal under the
DNPWC Act,1993, but, it has been listed in 2016 as
vulnerable species in the IUCN and Appendix 1 of CITES .
The study will focus on the following general and specific objectives:
To assess the status of human leopard conflict in Gorkha district of Nepal.
1. To determine the status of livestock depredation in 2076/77 by the leopard
and spatial-temporal patterns of attacks on livestock in study area
2. To explore the cause/s of livestock depredation and mitigation measures
adopted by the local people to reduce human-leopard conflict in study area
3. To find out local people's perception and attitude towards the leopard &
compensation program in study area
Study area map
28.034678°N ; 84.717929°E
Map of study area: The following maps
show the study area. Bhimsen rural
municipality lies in the Gorkha district,
Gandaki Province of Nepal.
Study area: Bhimsen rural municipality
& its administrative headquarter is
located at Ghyampesal.
Total area: 101.25 sq. km
Total population: 22,053
Total household: 5,438
(source: Gorkha district profile 2074 BS)
Climate: Its most of the parts lies in tropical to sub-tropical
Vegetation and Wildlife: It consists of tropical and
sub-tropical like vegetations & leopard, deer(red), wild cat, k
alij, luiche, titra, etc. as wildlife (DFO Gorkha,2021).
Ethnicity: According to the National population census 2011
of Nepal, Bhimsen rural municipality has the maximum 40.14
% Pahadi Brahman, the second 12.32% Newar and the third
10.55% Sarki ethnic group (citation??).
Method of data collection: Several techniques will be applied to collect data as follows:
Primary data collection: For primary data collection,
Reconnaissance survey: Reconnaissance survey will be carried out in study
Key informants' interview(KII): KII will be done with a selected persons. This
also helps to cross-check the information revived during the household survey.
Focus Group Discussion: Focus group discussions will be done with the local
focal persons to collect information.
Field Observation: Field observation will be carried out for the collection
of important observed information.
Secondary data collection: Secondary data will be collected from Articles, Journals
, Books ,Internet/Browser, Interview, Office fil and other published and unpublished
Data Analysis: Data will be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Every
questions and response of the respondent will be coded and analyzed with SPSS, M
S-Excel software, and also Arc/Q GIS.
Easy to change colors, photos and Text.
From objective_1: This study will explore the status of livestock depredation
and pattern of attack. These expected outcomes will help in the adoption of
suitable measures to mitigate spatial-temporal patterns of attack on livestock.
From objective_2: This study will explore cause/s and adopted mitigation
measures of livestock depredation by leopard and recommend among most
effective mitigation measures for reduction of livestock depredation.
From objective_3: The last expected outcome of this study is to find out
local people perception and attitude towards leopard & compensation and
recommend suitable conservation initiatives.
Activities Time (2021) Rema
Feb March April May June
1 Literature Review
2 Reconnaissance Survey
3 Field Visit & Data Collection
4 Data Processing & Analysis
5 Draft Report Preparation
6 Seminar Presentation
7 Report Finalization/Submission
BUDGET S.N. Activities Rate (Rs.) *Unit Total (Rs. NP) Justification
1. Research Travel 1000*2 trips 2000 For travels …..
2. Field Work (researcher) 300*5months 45000 Daily Allowances for res..
3. Research assistant 500*1per*15days 7500 Daily Allowances for ..
4. Research equipment 500*15days 7500 For equipment’s & ..
5. Honorarium for Advisor 5000 5000 For help, motivation &..
6. Stationery and supplies (Including all) 6000 Papers, photocopy, pens,…
7. Seminar (Including all) 1000 Slides, presentation equi..
8. Miscellaneous (Including all) 1000 Photographic films, teleph..
9. Grand Total 75000
Dhungana, R., Lamichhane, B. R., Savini, T., Dhakal, M., Poudel, B. S., &
Karki, J. B. (2019). Livestock depredation by leopards around Chitwan National
Park, Nepal. Mammalian Biology, 96, 7–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.20
Inskip, C., Zimmermann, A.( 2009.). Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns
and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43, 18–34.
Kabir, M., Ghoddousi, A., Awan, M., Wildlife, M. A.-E. J.( 2014). Assessment of
human–leopard conflict in Machiara National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir,
Pakistan. Springer. Retrieved March 31, 2021, from https://link.springer.com/
Karanth,K.K., Gupta, S., & Vanamamalai, A. (2018). Compensation payments,
procedures and policies towards human-wildlife conflict management: Insights
from India. Biological Conservation, 227(July), 383–389. https://doi.org/10.1016
Madden, F. (2006). Human-wildlife conflict: a case for collaboration. Nature &
Oli M.K., Taylor I.R, Rogers, M.E. (1994). Snow leopard Panthera uncial
predation of livestock: An assessment of local perceptions in the Annapurna cons
ervation area, Nepal. Biol. Conserve