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  1. Assessment of Human-leopard conflict A case study in Bhimsen Gaupalika of Gorkha District, Nepal Academic Adviser Dr. Gandhiv Kafle Asst. Professor AFU, FOF Researcher Chandesh Pd. Patel Exam Roll No. 289 8th semester AFU, FOF Hetauda Field Adviser Mr. Mahesh Poudel AFO, DFO Gorkha
  3. INTRODUCTION According to Madden (2006), human-wildlife conflict is a complex combination of characteristics, it includes cases where wildlife threatens, attacks, injures, or kills humans as well as livestock, crops or property on the other hand humans deliberately injure, abuse, or kill wildlife because of perceived or actual threats to their property, livelihoods, lifestyle, person, family or community. Human population growth and the associated increase in rates of resources use, habitat modification and fragmentation are forcing wild animals to live in increasing proximity to humans, which are resulted as major causes of human-wildlife conflict (In skip and Zim merman, 2009). H L C
  4. 2 INTRODUCTION  Due to lack of knowledge and leopard (Panthera pardus) predatory habit, they have been perceived as a threat to human life and livestock. Local people and communities often hold negative attitudes, when carnivores prey upon livestock and destroy property and crops (Oli et al.,1994; Lenihan, 1996).  Human-wildlife conflict is one of the growing challenges in biodiversity conservation and management, especially in developing countries. The main threats are for large carnivores are human-wildlife conflict and retaliatory killings reducing in prey base, poaching for trade-in fur and bone (Kabir et al., 2014). H L C
  5. 3 RATIONALE H L C  Leopards are known to prey on livestock throughout their range that makes leopards vulnerable to retaliatory killings and reduces public support for conservation (Dhungana et al., 2019).  It was realized that without good relations and co-operations of the local people, no conservation measures would be effective to the common leopard. Similarly, the effectiveness of compensation payments in mitigating and resolving human - wildlife conflict is globally debated (Karanth et al., 2018).  Leopard is not a protected mammal of Nepal under the DNPWC Act,1993, but, it has been listed in 2016 as vulnerable species in the IUCN and Appendix 1 of CITES .
  6. The study will focus on the following general and specific objectives:  General Objective To assess the status of human leopard conflict in Gorkha district of Nepal.  Specific Objectives 1. To determine the status of livestock depredation in 2076/77 by the leopard and spatial-temporal patterns of attacks on livestock in study area 2. To explore the cause/s of livestock depredation and mitigation measures adopted by the local people to reduce human-leopard conflict in study area 3. To find out local people's perception and attitude towards the leopard & compensation program in study area OBJECTIVES 4
  7. Study area map 28.034678°N ; 84.717929°E Map of study area: The following maps show the study area. Bhimsen rural municipality lies in the Gorkha district, Gandaki Province of Nepal. Study area: Bhimsen rural municipality & its administrative headquarter is located at Ghyampesal. Total area: 101.25 sq. km Total population: 22,053 Total household: 5,438 (source: Gorkha district profile 2074 BS) METHODOLOGY 5
  8. 6 METHODOLGY continued… Climate: Its most of the parts lies in tropical to sub-tropical range. Vegetation and Wildlife: It consists of tropical and sub-tropical like vegetations & leopard, deer(red), wild cat, k alij, luiche, titra, etc. as wildlife (DFO Gorkha,2021). Ethnicity: According to the National population census 2011 of Nepal, Bhimsen rural municipality has the maximum 40.14 % Pahadi Brahman, the second 12.32% Newar and the third 10.55% Sarki ethnic group (citation??).
  9. METHODOLGY continued… Method of data collection: Several techniques will be applied to collect data as follows: Primary data collection: For primary data collection,  Reconnaissance survey: Reconnaissance survey will be carried out in study area.  Key informants' interview(KII): KII will be done with a selected persons. This also helps to cross-check the information revived during the household survey.  Focus Group Discussion: Focus group discussions will be done with the local focal persons to collect information. 7
  10. METHODOLGY continued… Field Observation: Field observation will be carried out for the collection of important observed information. Secondary data collection: Secondary data will be collected from Articles, Journals , Books ,Internet/Browser, Interview, Office fil and other published and unpublished documents. Data Analysis: Data will be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Every questions and response of the respondent will be coded and analyzed with SPSS, M S-Excel software, and also Arc/Q GIS. 8
  11. METHODOLGY continued…  MS Excel and SPSS, relevant statistical testes, interpretation with diagrams, tab les, figures and text. 9
  12. 10 Easy to change colors, photos and Text. From objective_1: This study will explore the status of livestock depredation and pattern of attack. These expected outcomes will help in the adoption of suitable measures to mitigate spatial-temporal patterns of attack on livestock. From objective_2: This study will explore cause/s and adopted mitigation measures of livestock depredation by leopard and recommend among most effective mitigation measures for reduction of livestock depredation. From objective_3: The last expected outcome of this study is to find out local people perception and attitude towards leopard & compensation and recommend suitable conservation initiatives. EXPECTED OUTPUT
  13. 11 SCHEDULE S.N. Activities Time (2021) Rema - rks Feb March April May June 1 Literature Review 2 Reconnaissance Survey 3 Field Visit & Data Collection 4 Data Processing & Analysis 5 Draft Report Preparation 6 Seminar Presentation 7 Report Finalization/Submission
  14. 12 BUDGET S.N. Activities Rate (Rs.) *Unit Total (Rs. NP) Justification 1. Research Travel 1000*2 trips 2000 For travels ….. 2. Field Work (researcher) 300*5months 45000 Daily Allowances for res.. 3. Research assistant 500*1per*15days 7500 Daily Allowances for .. 4. Research equipment 500*15days 7500 For equipment’s & .. 5. Honorarium for Advisor 5000 5000 For help, motivation &.. 6. Stationery and supplies (Including all) 6000 Papers, photocopy, pens,… 7. Seminar (Including all) 1000 Slides, presentation equi.. 8. Miscellaneous (Including all) 1000 Photographic films, teleph.. 9. Grand Total 75000
  15. Dhungana, R., Lamichhane, B. R., Savini, T., Dhakal, M., Poudel, B. S., & Karki, J. B. (2019). Livestock depredation by leopards around Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Mammalian Biology, 96, 7–13. 19 Inskip, C., Zimmermann, A.( 2009.). Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43, 18–34. Kabir, M., Ghoddousi, A., Awan, M., Wildlife, M. A.-E. J.( 2014). Assessment of human–leopard conflict in Machiara National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Springer. Retrieved March 31, 2021, from article/10.1007/s10344-013-0782 REFERENCES 13
  16. 14 Karanth,K.K., Gupta, S., & Vanamamalai, A. (2018). Compensation payments, procedures and policies towards human-wildlife conflict management: Insights from India. Biological Conservation, 227(July), 383–389. /j.biocon.2018.07.06 Madden, F. (2006). Human-wildlife conflict: a case for collaboration. Nature & Faune, 21(2) Oli M.K., Taylor I.R, Rogers, M.E. (1994). Snow leopard Panthera uncial predation of livestock: An assessment of local perceptions in the Annapurna cons ervation area, Nepal. Biol. Conserve REFERENCES continued…
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