Words to describe people
Several ways to describe people on some
•Work they do
•The language they speak
•The place they belong to
•Their families and communities.
There are some words used for people in
• Two groups described according to their work.
2. Rajas (Not rajas like we read later)
• Two words used to describe people or
community as a whole.
Reference:- Puru jana or vish, the bharat jana or
vish, the yadu jana or vish etc.
• People who composed hymns described
themselves as Aryas.
• Opponents :- Dasas or Dasyus(who didn’t
perform sacrifices and spoke different
• Dasa and dasi came to mean as slave.
• Who are slaves?
• Rigveda was being composed in North west
area and What about other areas?
Silent sentinels – Story of Megaliths
• Mega means Big and lith means stone
• It is a burial sites
• Stone Boulders
• Stones used to mark the
• The practice of erecting
This megalithic began
About 3000 years ago.
• Deccan, South India, North East and Kashmir.
• Megaliths can be seen by so many ways.
1. On Earth Surface
2. Under Ground
3. Circle of stone boulders
one big stone standing on
( indication of burials.)
Features of Burials
• Dead were buried with distinctive pots called red
and black ware.
• Tools and weapons of Iron, Skeleton of horses
• Horse equipment, ornaments of gold and stones.
• Social differences were there because different
and more things were found with dead bodies
• One skeleton was buried with
33 gold beads, 4copper
bangles, 1 conch shell
• Other skeleton was
buried with only few pots.
• There was differences
in people’s status-
• rich, poor, chiefs,
Burial Spots meant for families?
• Sometimes Megalith
contain more than one
• Stone circles or boulders
were considered as sign
posts to find burial site.
• Whenever they want they
can return to that spot for
burying dead bodies.
• The bodies of those who
died later were brought
into the graves through
Special Burial at Inamgaon
• Site on river Ghod, a tributary of
• Activities or things started
around 3600 and 2700 years
• Adult buried in the ground-
straight, head towards north.
• Some burials found within the
houses with vessels containing
food and water.
• A man body was found in the
courtyard of five rooms at centre
with four legged clay jar and in
cross legged position
What skeleton Studies Tells Us?
• It is easy to identify skeleton
of an adult and a child.
• Can we identify whether
the skeleton was that of a
man or woman.
• Sometimes people decide
on the basis of what is
found with the skeleton :-
Jewellery (problem with
• By bone structure of the
skeleton it was better way
to figure out the sex of a
• The hip or pelvic area of women is generally
larger to enable child bearing.
• These distinctions based on
modern skeletal studies.
• About 2000 years, ago.
• A Physician :- Charaka
• Wrote a book on
• Human body has 360
• But according to
modern anatomy it is
• Charaka arrived at this
figure by counting
teeth, joints and
Occupation at Inamgaon
• Archaeologists have found Seeds of Wheat, Barley, rice,
pulses, sesame, millets, peas, have found.
• Bones found… of animals with cut marks have found.
Hunters and Gatherers.
Cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, dog, horse, ass, pig, sambhar,
spotted dear, black buck, antelope, hare, mongoose,
birds, crocodile, turtle, crab, fish.
• Fruits- ber, amla, jamun, dates, variety of berries were