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Study on the Tea pest and Tea Plant.pptx

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Study on the Tea pest and Tea Plant.pptx

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This is an presentation about Study on the Tea Pest and Tea Plant diseases of kacharigaon Tea Estate,Rangapara.
by Suraj Paswan , B.sc Zoology Graduate under Guwahati University from Darrang College.
The presentation contains detail information about the tea pests and the plant diseases found at kacharigaon Tea Estate.

This is an presentation about Study on the Tea Pest and Tea Plant diseases of kacharigaon Tea Estate,Rangapara.
by Suraj Paswan , B.sc Zoology Graduate under Guwahati University from Darrang College.
The presentation contains detail information about the tea pests and the plant diseases found at kacharigaon Tea Estate.

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Study on the Tea pest and Tea Plant.pptx

  1. 1. Study on the Tea pest and Tea Plant diseases of Kacharigaon T.E Estate, Rangapara,Assam NAME: SURAJ PASWAN UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF PROF. DR. SANGITA BARUAH B.SC GRADUATE (ZOOLOGY) DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY DARRANG COLLEGE ,TEZPUR
  2. 2. Introduction The Tea(Camellia sinensis) industry in Assam is about 172 years old. It occupies an important place and plays a very useful part in the national economy. In tea production, the term pest can be defined broadly as any living organism, plant or animal, which causes damage to the tea plant by feeding on it. The pest damage in tea can often lead to a significant impact on productivity, although the magnitude of pest infestation varies depending on altitude, climate and cultural practices. Despite crop loss, pest infestation also adversely affects the quality of processed tea, for example: damage caused by sucking pests like thrips and mites leading to dull appearance of tea. Severe infestation of flushworm, thrips, mites and mosquito bug affects the flavour of made tea.
  3. 3. Aims and Objectives  The study is aimed at obtaining information on the tea pest prevalence in Kacharigaon Tea Estate,Rangapara under Sonitpur district of Assam with reference to the plant diseases in the garden.  This study brings up the various information regarding plant diseases and the management of pests,which affects the high yield production of tea.
  4. 4. Review of Literature Gireesh Nadd, S.G Eswara Reddy and Adarsh Shanker(2013) studied the insects and mites pest of tea and their management. The findings of such works were published in the book:Science of tea Technology. L.k Hazarika ,K.C Pujari and Seema Wahab studied about the biological control of tea pests. The study focused the Various aspects to control the tea pest of Assam. Barua,D.N (2008) studied about the pest and diseases,Science and practice in tea cultivation under Tea Research Association.
  5. 5. Study Area To study on Tea pest prevalance of Tea and diseases of tea plant the Kacharigaon Tea Estate is selected . Kacharigaon T.E estate is a leading manufacturer,supplier,trading company of Tea,black tea,green tea from Rangapara,Assam India. The distance of study site from Tezpur town is 31.3 km. The garden is 71.61 hectares spread throughout.
  6. 6. Materials and Method The primary data relating to the pest attack on the plantaion and disease of the tea plant were collected during the period may 2022 to June 2022 through the following methods:  Survey : Survey routes based upon endemics areas were identified during the period of infestation,After that survey was undertaken at every 1km distance initially during different part of the day. Everyday, a maximum of 5 spots were observed with the aid of garden labour and local people.  Field Scouting: Based on the survey ,field scouting was initiated for tea pests once in 3-5 days in the concern garden to observe the pest occurance  Interaction: I contact the manager visited his resident to know more about pest attack and diseases of tea plant in detail .The local people,labourer also provided the information .
  7. 7. Results and Discussion 1. Tea green Leaf hopper: Tea green leaf hopper(Emposca flavescens)are most damaging to the leaves. Both the nymphs and adults are found to be damaging. The suck sap from the leaves and cause the leaves to remain dry and finally make it to fall off. Eggs are laid by inserting in the tissue of new tea buds,and shoots .In one bud upto 7 eggs laid.Fecundity 100 eggs during her lifetime Symptoms and disease: Nymphs are more damaging than adults due to intensive sucking the affected leaves curl downward, the margin becomes curved then turn brown and gradually dry up. 2. Red Spider Mites : Red spider mite (Oligonychus coffeae) is one of the most common tea pest found in the tea plantation. Red spider mites were seen damaging the upper surface of the mature leaves. Spherical bright red eggs are deposited by the female on leaves at the rate 4 – 6 eggs per day. Three developing stages are found to occur six legged larvae. Elliptically shaped female body is broad & round at the posterior end and carries the large purple markings. Symptoms and disease:Infestation starts along midrib and veins and spread to the entire upper surface of the leves leaves gets bronzed,dry and crumpled
  8. 8. 3. Shoot borer: Shoot Hole borer or Shoot borer (Xyleborus fornicates) are found to be effective in the gardens in January and early February. They have an Incubation period of about 10 to 12 days. The adults are small in size brown, reddish brown or black in colour, head is completely bending downwards with blunt end. Only the adult stage was found to be damaging. They makes holes on the roots and on the lower part of main stem. Caterpillar bores into the stem or branches to feed on the wood. Symptoms and disease: Yellowing of later hhgg branches is a symptom hdg of the attack. Sometime gf oozing of liquid is also gch observed. 4. Tea Aphids: Tea Aphid (Toxoptera auranti) is a polyphagous species attacking tea and other host plants such as coffee, cacao, citrus etc. Colonies of aphids are seen on tender shoots of tea immediately after pruning. Leaves curl up and shoot growth is stunted. Yellowing and distorted leaves, stunted growth and an unsightly black sticky substance on the plant may mean aphid attack. Aphids feed on a wide range of plants, and in severe cases the plant fails to thrive. Symptoms and disease: Plants in shady areas are more vulnerable to aphid infestion. Leaves curl and crinkle and flower buds may harden causing flower to distort.
  9. 9. 5. Tea Mosquito Bug : Tea mosquito bug (Heteroptera miridae) is a major sucking pest of tea. The nymph and adults suck the sap from tender leaves,buds and young shoots,which results in heavy crop losses. The damage to tea plant caused by the tea mosquito bug is not limited to sucking of plant material and extra oral digestion by salivation. Damage is also caused by the insertation of eggs into plant tissue during oviposition. Symptoms and disease: Within 2-3 hours of sucking a circular spot is formed around cgc the feeding points ann and 24hr it becomes jbcc translucent,light, gfh browning within few bhdh days it appears dark. 6. Leaf eating caterpillar: Looper Caterpillar (Buzura suppressaria) is a well known pest of tea in India and Indonesia. bushes that control becomes difficult unless measures are initiated at the start of the attack. Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the lower leaf surfaces through their piercing and sucking mouthparts. While sucking the plant sap, they also inject toxic saliva into the plant tissues, which leads to yellowing. Symptoms and disease: In early stages the caterpillar are gregarious and scrape the leaves they make holes on the leaves . Irregular holes on the leaves results on skeletonization having only veins and petioles.
  10. 10. Some of Tea Plant Diseases Found in Kacharigaon T.E estae 1. Blister Blight: Small, pinhole-size spots are initially seen on young leaves less than a month old. As the leaves develop, the spots become transparent, larger, and light brown. After about 7 days, the lower leaf surface develops blister-like symptoms, with dark green, water- soaked zones surrounding the blisters. Survival and spread: The pathogen survive bh on stem and in fallen D plant host debris. disease is readily spread spread by the dbhg dispersal of spore by bf wind. 2. Red rust: Leaves develop lesions that are roughly circular, raised, and purple to reddish-brown. The alga may spread from leaves to branches and fruit. Most algal spots develop on the upper leaf surface. Older infections become greenish-gray and look like lichen. Cephaleuros usually does not harm the plant. Survival and spread: The pathogen reproduce and survive in spots on leaves or stem and in fallen plant host debris
  11. 11. 3. Brown blight,grey blight : Small, oval, pale yellow-green spots first appear on youngBrown blight grey blightleaves. Often the spots are surrounded by a narrow, yellow zone. As the spots grow and turn brown or gray, concentric rings with scattered, tiny black dots become visible and eventually the dried tissue falls, leading to defoliation. Leaves of any age can be aff Survival and Spread:The pathogen survives in decay plant debris which is the sourse of primary infection. 4. Twig die back,stem canker: The first symptoms include browning and drooping of affected leaves. As the disease spreads into the shoots, they become dry and die. The entire branch can die from the tip downward. Dying branches often have cankers-shallow, slowly spreading lesions surrounded by a thick area of bark. Survival and Spread:The fungus usually requires wounded plant tissue to gain entry and initiate infection.
  12. 12. Pest Management With the cultivation of crops there comes the pest problems and n crop protection, the same is true for tea cultivation.Some major aspects to control pests are: Cultural Practices: Cultural practices are integral parts of tea cultivation include pruning,plucking,winter cleaning,and stirring of soil around the collar during the winter. These practices directly influence the pest build up. Pesticides: The use of pesticides to kill the various pest of the garden to control. Thus, over reliance on pesticides end up with pesticide residue in made tea (DDT - 10.4-47.1%; endosulfan - 41.1-98.0%; dicofol- 0.0-82.4%; ethion - 0.0-36.2%; cypermethrin - 6.0- 45.1%).
  13. 13. Photo gallery  hgghvh .
  14. 14. Conclusion Tea like other agricultural crops is prone to attack by diseases. Disease can be explained as a condition of the plant involving abnormalities of growth or structure. The symptoms, or visible signs, of a disease can vary between minute changes in appearance to death of the whole plant. Disease causing pathogens are parasitic organisms that live in or on the host plant and cause the appearance of disease symptoms, a process called pathogenesis. Parasitic diseases are important because they are infectious. They can spread between plants, often rapidly and extensively and may produce epidemics. The severity of symptoms when judged visually is not a good indication of the importance of the disease. Some diseases may produce no immediately obvious symptoms in the field but cause substantial reduction in yield, whereas others produce very obvious symptoms, which have little effect on the productivity of the plant.
  15. 15. References  Anonymous (1994)Pest of tea in North-East India and their control.Tea Research Association.  Barua,D.N (2008). Pest and diseases.Science and Practice in Tea culture.Tea Research Association.  Borthakur M,and Singh K,(2002). Biology and cultural control of Tea Pest and shade tree pest.  Lakshmi Kanta Hazarika(2001).Biological Control of Tea pests.  Gireesh nadda,S.G. Eswara Reddy and Adarsh Shanker,(2013).Insect and mites Pests of Tea and their Management.  Hazarika L.K, Bhuyan M, Hazarika BN(2009).Insects Pest of Tea and their managements.  https://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/crop/production

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