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Dealing with literary device Rizwana Ma'am.pdf

  1. 1. Dealing With Literary Devices By : Rizwana Shariff D.A.V. PUBLIC SCHOOL, CDA, CUTTACK
  2. 2. ⚫ Poetic or literary devices include the way words rhyme, sound in lines of poetry together and create rhythm when spoken. They are used to arrange the words in ways that squeeze them for all of their meanings.
  3. 3. Why do poets use them ? ⚫ To decorate their language ⚫ To make it more vivid & pictorial ⚫ To increase its force & effectiveness ⚫ To communicate their meaning more lucidly & clearly ⚫ To provide great aesthetic satisfaction to the readers
  4. 4. Types Of Poetic Devices SIMILE A simile is an expression of likeness between different objects or events. It is a comparison between two distinctly different things and indicated by the word” like “ , “as “ and ”so “. Example-”O my love’s like a red, red rose.” The younger brother is as good as gold.
  5. 5. METAPHOR It is a comparison between two things which are essentially dissimilar .In this figure of speech a word is transferred , or carried over , from the object to which it belongs to another ,in such a manner that a comparison is implied , though not clearly stated. Example- The camel is the ship of the desert . He is the pillar of the state.
  6. 6. ALLITERATION Repetition of speech sounds in a sequence of nearby words; the term is usually applied only to consonants. Example-The fair breeze blew , the white foam flew’ The furrow followed free .’’
  7. 7. PERSONIFICATION It is a figure of speech in which inanimate objects and abstract ideas or qualities are spoken of as if they are persons or human beings. Example –Opportunity knocks at the door but once.
  8. 8. OXYMORON Oxymoron is the association or bringing together of two words or phrases having opposite meanings. Example -”wisest fool”
  9. 9. TRANSFERRED EPITHET ⚫ It is a figure of speech in which an epithet or qualifying adjective is sometimes transferred from a person to an object or from one word to another. ⚫ Example”-He tossed from side to side on his sleepless bed .”
  10. 10. ARCHAISM The use of words and expressions in literature that have become obsolete in common speech is called Archaism. Example –Thou ,Thee ,Yon
  11. 11. ALLUSION ⚫ Allusion means a brief reference to some writer or story or mythology .The use of allusions enriches and imparts variety to a literary composition. ⚫ Milton’s “Paradise Lost “ is full of allusions to Greek and Roman mythology.
  12. 12. METONYMY ⚫ The word literally means substitution or change of name .The term for one thing is applied to another with which it has become closely associated in experience . ⚫ Example –the crown or sceptre stand for king
  13. 13. SYNECDOCHE ⚫ In Synecdoche a part of something is used to signify the whole or the whole is used to signify a part. ⚫ Example- ten hands for ten workmen
  14. 14. REPETITION ⚫ When the same words are repeated,it is called Repetition. ⚫ Example –Day after day , day after day
  15. 15. REFRAIN ⚫ A line or a part of or a group of lines which is repeated in the course of the poem ,sometimes with slight changes and usually at the end of every stanza. ⚫ Example –For men may come and men may go but I go on forever.
  16. 16. SYMBOLS ⚫ Symbol is applied only to a word or set of words that signifies an object or event which itself signifies something else –suggests a range of reference beyond itself. ⚫ Example-Time is money Love is a jewel
  17. 17. PUN ⚫ When there is more than one meaning in the same word , it is called Pun. Example-An ambassador is an honest man who lies abroad for the good of his country.
  18. 18. RHYME SCHEME ⚫ The Rhyme Scheme is the sequence in which the rhyme occurs .The sound at the end of the first line is represented as the letter “a”, at the end of the second line is “b”, etc. ⚫ Example –Once upon a time a frog a ⚫ Croaked away in Bingle Bog. a ⚫ Every night dusk to dawn b ⚫ He croaked awn and awn and awn . b
  19. 19. IMAGERY ⚫ Words or phrases that appeal to any combination of senses. ⚫ Example- scorpion crawling beneath a sack of rice ⚫ Visual Imagery ⚫ Smell Imagery ⚫ Tactile Imagery ⚫ Internal sensation ⚫ Sound Imagery
  20. 20. POETRY –HORNBILL CLASS- XI ⚫ A PHOTOGRAPH ⚫ Shirley Toulson ⚫ OXYMORON ⚫ “ the laboured ease of loss “ ⚫ TRANSFERRED EPITHET ⚫ “terribly transient feet ⚫ ALLITERATION ⚫ Terribly transient ⚫ Its silence silences (PARADOX) ⚫ Stood still to smile ⚫ All there stood still to smile ⚫ Imagery : ⚫ went paddling
  21. 21. THE VOICE OF THE RAIN ⚫ Walt Whitman ⚫ PERSONIFICATION ⚫ The poet addresses the inanimate rain as if it were a human being ⚫ METAPHOR ⚫ “I am the Poem of Earth “ ⚫ CONTRASTS ⚫ Upward-descend ⚫ Day-night ⚫ Recked-unrecked
  22. 22. CHILDHOOD Markus Natten REFRAIN When did my childhood go? ALLITERATION Hell and heaven My mind was really mine Whichever way REPETITION They talked of love and preached of love
  23. 23. FATHER TO SON Elizabeth Jennings IMAGERY(Agrarian) ⚫ Seed SIMILE We speak like strangers ALLITERATION ⚫ Silence surrounds ⚫ The seed I spent or sown ⚫ Speak like strangers ⚫ Make and move ALLUSION Prodigal son(alludes to the parable of Cain and Abel from the Bible) IRONY The seed I spent or sown it where The land is his and none of mine
  24. 24. POETRY –FLAMINGO CLASS XII ⚫ MY MOTHER AT SIXTY SIX Kamala Das SIMILE ⚫ Her face ashen like that of a corpse ⚫ Wan, pale as late winter’s moon REPETITION ⚫ Smile and smile and smile ⚫ Thought away ...........thought away IMAGES AND SYMBOLS ⚫ Trees sprinting (PERSONIFICATION) ⚫ Merry children spilling ⚫ Winter’s moon FREE VERSE-No regular rhyme scheme ⚫ TAUTOLOGY ⚫ wan, pale
  25. 25. AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CLASSROOM IN A SLUM Stephen Spender SIMILE ⚫ Like rootless weeds ⚫ Like bottle bits on stones ⚫ Like catacombs ⚫ Slums as big as doom METAPHOR ⚫ Rat’s eyes ⚫ Paper-seeming boy ⚫ Father’s gnarled diseases ⚫ Squirrel’s game ⚫ Tree room ⚫ Future’s painted with a fog ⚫ Lead sky ⚫ Spectacles of steel
  26. 26. ALLITERATION ⚫ Far far from gusty waves (REPETITION) ⚫ Bottle bits IMAGES AND SYMBOLS ⚫ Gusty waves ⚫ Paper- seeming boy ⚫ Sour cream walls ⚫ Tyrolese valley ⚫ Twisted bones ⚫ Ships and sun ⚫ Cramped holes
  27. 27. KEEPING QUIET Pablo Neruda SYMBOLS ⚫ Twelve : ⚫ a countdown ⚫ A passage of time ⚫ 12 hours on face of a clock ⚫ 12 months of a year PUN / SYNECDOCHE ⚫ Not move our arms so much ALLITERATION ⚫ Sudden strangeness ⚫ Hurt hands ⚫ Clean clothes ⚫ PERSONIFICATION ⚫ Face of the earth ⚫ PARADOX ⚫ Victory with no survivors
  28. 28. A THING OF BEAUTY John Keats METAPHOR ⚫ Bower quiet (IMAGERY) ⚫ Flowery band (IMAGERY) ⚫ Endless fountain of immortal drink ALLITERATION ⚫ Noble nature ⚫ Cooling covert ⚫ Bond to bind ⚫ IMAGERY ⚫ Heaven’s brink
  29. 29. ARCHAISM ⚫ Morrow PERSONIFICATION ⚫ Inhuman dearth ⚫ Shape of beauty METONYMY ⚫ Hot season is used for summers ⚫ Green world is used for nature ⚫ ALLUSION – simple sheep
  30. 30. AUNT JENNIFER’S TIGERS Adrienne Rich ⚫ METAPHOR ⚫ Bright topaz denizens ⚫ ALLITERATION ⚫ Fingers fluttering ( synecdoche) ⚫ Prancing proud ⚫ SYMBOLS ⚫ Tigers-courageous ,fearless ,elegant ,proud ⚫ Aunt Jennifer –weak, timid , lacking courage ⚫ Uncle’s wedding band –shackles, trap
  31. 31. ⚫ IMAGERY ⚫ -Aunt Jennifer’s tigers prance across a screen ⚫ -Aunt Jennifer’s fingers fluttering through her wool ⚫ TRANSFERRED EPITHET ⚫ -Terrified fingers ⚫ SYMBOLS ⚫ -Tiger- Symbol of fear & terror perpetrated on women by the male world. ⚫ Symbol of freedom of spirit which Aunt dreams of. ⚫ -Bright Topaz- symbolizes the bright yellowish brown colour of the tiger skin. ⚫ -Fluttering wool-Extensive oppression of women ⚫ -Uncle’s Wedding Band- Suppression of women in matrimony. ⚫ Aunt Jennifer – A victim of male-oppression ⚫ Embroidery – symbol of creative expression
  32. 32. ⚫ METONYMY ⚫ World of green represents forest ⚫ RHYME SCHEME ⚫ aabbcc ⚫ IRONY ⚫ Aunt Jennifer’s tigers will continue to prance freely, when she continues to be chained by the woes of life
  33. 33. A ROADSIDE STAND Robert Frost PERSONIFICATION ⚫ The sadness that lurks behind the window ⚫ The roadside stand that too pathetically pled TRANSFERRED EPITHET ⚫ Polished traffic ⚫ Selfish cars ALLITERATION ⚫ Greedy good-doers ⚫ Beneficent beasts of prey ⚫ Pathetically pled OXYMORON ⚫ Greedy good doers ⚫ Beneficent beasts of prey METAPHOR Trusting sorrow
  34. 34. ⚫ IMAGERY ⚫ Fluttering wool ⚫ Ringed with ordeals ⚫ SYNECDOCHE ⚫ Terrified hands ⚫ METONYMY ⚫ World of green Note: Students should be instructed to quote the poetic device whenever asked to identify it.
  35. 35. Q & A
  36. 36. Thank You