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Syed Anwar Ali S
B.sc(CS); M.P.Ed; MPhil; FIFA Dip.
In Sports Medicine (SWZ);..
It is a damage to the body caused by
external force. This may be caused by
accidents, falls, hits, weapons, and
other causes. Major trauma is injury
that has the potential to cause
prolonged disability or death.
Sports Related Injuries
1, Soft Tissue Injuries
2. Bone Injuries: Fracture
3. Joint Injuries: Dislocation
3 Types of Athletic Injuries
1.) ACUTE: Usually a result of a single
traumatic event within the last five days.
2.) OVERUSE: Subtle and occur over time,
making them challenging to diagnose and
3.) CHRONIC: Usually has lasted at least
three months or more.
PAGE04 Soft Tissue Injuries
The most common soft tissues injured are
muscles, tendons, and ligaments. These injuries
often occur during sports and exercise
activities, but sometimes simple everyday
activities can cause an injury. Sprains, strains,
and contusions, as well as tendinitis and
bursitis, are common soft-tissue injuries.
A contusion (bruise) is an injury to
the soft tissue often produced by a
blunt force, such as a kick, fall, or
blow. The result will be pain, swelling,
and discoloration because of bleeding
into the tissue. Treatment for
contusions includes rest, ice,
compression, and elevation (R.I.C.E.).
A muscle strain, or pulled muscle,
occurs when your muscle is
overstretched or torn. This usually
occurs as a result of fatigue,
overuse, or improper use of a muscle.
Strains can happen in any muscle, but
they’re most common in your lower
back, neck, shoulder, and hamstring,
which the muscle behind your thigh.
An abrasion is a partial thickness wound
caused by damage to the skin and can
be superficial involving only the
epidermis to deep, involving the deep
dermis. Abrasions usually involve
Grade 1: Mild damage to
individual muscle fibers (less
than 5% of fibers) that causes
minimal loss of strength and
Grade 2: More extensive
damage with more
muscle fibers involved.
Grade 3: Complete rupture of a
muscle or tendon.
A sprain is an injury to a ligament
caused by tearing of the fibers of the
ligament. The ligament can have a
partial tear, or it can be completely
torn apart. Ankle sprains are the most
common type of sprain.
Grade 1: Stretching or slight
tearing of the ligament with mild
tenderness, swelling and
stiffness. The ankle feels stable
and it is usually possible to walk
with minimal pain.
Grade 2: A more severe sprain, but
incomplete tear with moderate pain,
swelling and bruising.
Soft Tissue Injuries- CausesGrade 3 Sprain (Severe)
In a Grade 2 sprain, some but not all of
the ligament fibers are torn. Moderate
swelling and bruising above and below
the ankle joint are common.
Soft tissue injuries can be broken down into
two broad categories depending on the cause
– acute injuries and long term or overuse
1. Poor Warming up
2. Poor flexibility
3. Poor conditioning
4. Overexertion and fatigue
long term or overuse Injuries
1. Body conduct Sports
2. Awkward position for long
3. Poor posture
→ Many soft-tissue injuries can be
prevented through proper conditioning
and training. Other prevention tips
include: Use proper equipment. Replace
your athletic shoes as they wear out.
1. Sports Environment
2. Rules Modification
3. Proper Warming up
4. Adequate fluid intake
5. Correct technique
6. Avoid Practice in Chronic
7. Protective Equipment
8. Take Breaks
9. Safe Play
10.Take Time - off
Soft Tissue Injuries- Prevention
A fracture is a broken bone. It can range
from a thin crack to a complete break.
Bone can fracture crosswise, lengthwise,
in several places, or into many pieces.
Most fractures happen when a bone is
impacted by more force or pressure than
it can support
•Clean break in the
• No break in the
skin and no wound.
•Both the bone and skin break
• Chances of Infection.
•Breaks Parallel in
the Long axis bone
• No break in the
skin and no wound.
•More than one
•bone breaks at a
90-degree angle to
the long axis of the
•break or splinter of the bone
into more than two fragments.
•This degree occur on high-
impact trauma such as in
•soft bone in which the bone
bends and breaks
•occur most often during
infancy and childhood when
bones are soft
•Type of complete fracture. It
occurs due to a rotational, or
•Structures surrounding the
fracture are injured. There may
be damage to the veins,
arteries or nerves
•occurs when the broken ends
of the bone are jammed
together by the force of the
•Impact on Force.
Fall, Accident, Twisting etc
1. Exercise to improve
Strength , Flexibility &
2. Tread Carefully
3. Avoid Intaking of
4. Force and Direction in
5. Fragile Bones
A dislocated joint can be:
● Visibly deformed or out of
● Swollen or discolored
● Intensely painful
A dislocation is an injury to a joint — a
place where two or more bones come
together — in which the ends of your bones
are forced from their normal positions. This
painful injury temporarily deforms and
immobilizes your joint. Dislocation is most
common in shoulders and fingers.
You can take several steps to reduce the
risk of a dislocation. They include:
● Being cautious on stairs to help avoid
● Wearing protective gear during contact
● Staying physically active to keep the
muscles and tendons around the joints
● Maintaining a healthy weight to avoid
increased pressure on the bones
● Develop a fitness plan that includes
cardiovascular exercise, strength
training, and flexibility. This will
help decrease your chance of
● Alternate exercising different
muscle groups and exercise every
● Cool down properly after exercise
or sports. It should take 2 times as
long as your warm ups.
● Stay hydrated. Drink water to
prevent dehydration, heat
exhaustion, and heat stroke.
● Stretching exercises can improve
the ability of muscles to contract
and perform, reducing the risk for
injury. Each stretch should start
slowly until you reach a point of
muscle tension. Stretching should
not be painful. Aim to hold each
stretch for up to 20 seconds.
● Use the right equipment or gear
and wear shoes that provide
support and that may correct
certain foot problems that can
lead to injury.
● Learn the right techniques to play
● Rest when tired. Avoid exercise
when you are tired or in pain.
PAGE34● Always take your time during
strength training and go
through the full range of motion
with each repetition.
● If you do sustain a sports
injury, make sure you
participate in adequate
rehabilitation before resuming