2. Receptive Skills: Reading
Difference between reading and listening texts
A listening text can seem “unstructured” A reading text is usually more obviously
Unfamiliar regional/national accents can
For some students the written script is
Meaning is conveyed by the stress on key
words and the intonation of the voice.
In a reading text the fact that English word
are not always spelled like they sound can
If the students can also see the speaker,
gesture and expression will also aid
Students have to listen in ‘real time’ and are
expected to participate immediately.
Students can take their time, check back o
details, puzzle out meaning.
All students have listening skills in their own Not all students may be skilled in reading
3. What makes a reading text easy or
Generally, reading texts are easier if:
•They contain ‘simple’ language- structures and vocabulary
familiar to the students.
•They are short
•They contain short, simple sentences
•They are clearly organized- e.g. there is a straightforward
storyline or a clearly signposted argument.
•They are factual
•They are in standard English- with no specialized
•The topic is concrete and familiar
•There is support in the way of layout, titles, pictures, graphs
4. What are the different ways of
To go or move quickly and lightly over or on a
surface or through the air to get the general gist of
the text that we are reading. We want to know
what’s in the text but only on a rather superficial
We scan the article until we find what we’re looking
for. For example, we want to see what’s on tv on 8 pm.
Instead of starting from the beginning we quickly
more to the 8 pm section and then start reading the
details of the programmes.
6. Intensive Reading:
Reading for detail.
Maybe the article we skim read at first is
interesting and we want to read it in detail then.
Or we may do the crossword- paying close
attention to the clues in order to solve the
8. •Focus on their general or global understanding before
their grasp of detail.
•Encourage the students to use what they already
know- their knowledge of the world and of English.
•Help them to predict what they are going to read by
activating any knowledge they may have of the topic
or the text type.
•Elicit the sort of language they might expect to meet.
9. •Remind the students of the reading skills they employ
in their own language.
•Encourage them to use any visual clues available-
layout, pictures etc.
•Help the students understand the structure of the text
by focusing, for example on the key sentences and the
way sentences are linked.
•Encourage the students to deduce the meaning of
unknown vocabulary by guessing the meaning of the
word from clues in the context.
•Help the students use a dictionary efficiently to find
the meaning of unknown words and expressions.
10. •Give plenty of support, especially with lower
students or those who are not confident about
•Encourage the students to work together and help
•Motivate your students by choosing texts that are
interesting and that provide a real incentive for them
to understand and to contribute their own ideas and
12. Before Reading:
Arouse interest and help prediction.
• Encourage the students to think about and discuss
what they are going to read.
• The aim is not to focus on grammatical accuracy but
rather to interest and motivate the students to read.
• Activate any knowledge they have about the topic
and to help them predict what they are going to read.
• Use any clues afforded by the text layout and
• Teach any key words which you want to teach
14. Second Reading:
1.Set a task to focus on more detailed
2.The students read the text for the second time.
3.Feedback: encourage the students to work
together before eliciting their responses.
15. •You will probably want to encourage a personal
response to the text from your students.
•In this way reading can be naturally integrated with
17. Accuracy involves the correct use of vocabulary,
grammar and pronunciation.
•In Controlled and guided activities, the focus is
usually on accuracy and the teacher makes it clear
from feedback that accuracy is important.
•Ongoing correction is often appropriate during
18. •In freer activities the teacher is hoping for the correct
use of language but is also keen to encourage the
students’ attempts to use the language they have in
order to communicate.
•In feedback the teacher will probably comment on
correct use of language but also on how successfully
the students communicated.
19. Fluency can be thought of as ‘the
ability to keep going when speaking
20. In feedback the teacher can comment favorably on any
strategies the students used to increase their fluency.
•The use of natural sounding ‘incomplete sentences.’
•When did you do? On Tuesday. (Not I went on Tuesday.)
•The use of common expressions like I see what you mean.
Never mind etc
•The use of fillers and hesitation devices: Well, let me think
•The use of communication strategies, such as asking for
clarification; I don’t understand, Do you mean…?
•The ability to paraphrase– ‘put it other way’ or explain.
•The use of useful expressions such as that reminds me, by
the way etc.
21. What types of speaking activities can
we use in a classroom?
1. Controlled Activities:
For example: Repetition practice or set sentences
prompted by picture or word cues- to improve the
accurate use of words, structures, and pronunciation,
and to foster confidence.
22. Guided activities:
For example: Model dialogues which the students can
change to talk about themselves and to communicate
their own needs and ideas, tasks which the students
carry out using language which has been taught
23. Creative or freer communication:
These activities are usually designed to give either
creative practice opportunities for predicted language
items, or general fluency practice, where the specific
language focus is less relevant.
These activities both increase the students’
motivation, since the students talk for themselves, and
help bridge the gap between the rather artificial world
of the classroom, with its controlled language practice,
and the real world outside.
24. How can you encourage the students to
1. Encourage student interaction: you should aim to create a
comfortable atmosphere where students are not afraid to
speak and enjoy communicating with you and their fellow
2. Give plenty of controlled and guided practice: students
should get a chance to learn new vocabulary and grammar
structures, expressions and model sentences before using
them ‘for real.’
3. Making speaking activities communicative: encourage
purposeful and meaningful interaction between students.
4. Plan speaking activities carefully.
25. TEACHING PRODUCTIVE SKILLS
There are four basic skills in any language; receptive skills- reading and listening, and
productive skills- speaking and writing. All are equally important and whenever possible we
should try to incorporate all of them into our lessons if we want to have a balanced
approach. Often we will want to focus more on one particular skill but still bring others in to
create an " integrated "skills lesson.
In this part I will focus more on productive skills; speaking and writing. While speaking and
writing are substantially different in many ways, they both are used for the same purpose-
In many ways writing is the most neglected skill in the TEFL world " teaching English as a
foreign language", as many teachers don't like to see the classroom hours devoted to what
is often 'quiet time'. Writing, therefore, is often relegated to homework, which in turn is
frequently not done so the skill is never developed. It is true that most students prefer to
focus on their speaking skills but this doesn't mean that writing should be ignored. In many
ways writing is the more difficult skill, requiring a greater degree of accuracy. When
speaking, any misunderstanding can be cleared up' on the spot', whereas this is not possible
in writing. Speaking, on the other hand, requires a greater degree of fluency as the speaker
will rarely have time to think and plan an answer.
26. Communication between people is a very complex and ever changing
thing. But there are generalizations that we can make which have
particular relevance for the teaching and learning of languages.
When two or more people are communicating with each other, we can be
sure they are doing so for one of the following reasons:
• They have some communicative purpose
• They want to say something
• They want to listen to something
• They are interested in what is being said.
Therefore, if a teacher wishes to introduce a communicative activity to
the students, he or she should bring in a number of the mentioned
factors. The teacher must create the need and desire, in the
students, to communicate. If these factors are not present, it is far
less likely that the activity will be the success the teacher had
envisaged. If the students don't see the point in doing something,
they're far less likely to want to participate.
27. What is the difference between accuracy and
Accuracy activities are
activities are usually
controlled to ensure
Fluency activities are
allowing the student to
experiment and be
creative with the
language. We are less
accuracy and more
concerned with the
effectiveness and flow
28. Speaking activities in the classroom
Controlled activities - accuracy based activities. Language is controlled by
• Drilling: choral and individual listening to and repetition of the teacher's
modal of pronunciation.
Guided activities – accuracy based but a little more creative and productive.
The output is still controlled by the teacher but the exact language isn't.
• Model dialogues
• Guided role-play
Creative communication – fluency based activities. The scenario is usually
created by the teacher but the content of the language isn't.
• Free role-plays
• Communication games
29. Encouraging students to speak:
Many students can seem reluctant to speak in the classroom.
This can be for a variety of reasons, including:
• Lack of confidence
• Fear of making mistakes
• Peer intimidation
• Lack of interest in the topic
• Previous learning experience
• Cultural reasons.
The teacher must try to overcome these hurdles and encourage
student interaction. The aim should be to create a
comfortable atmosphere, where students are not afraid to
speak or make mistakes, and enjoy communicating with the
teacher and their fellow students.
30. Techniques to encourage interaction
• Plenty of controlled and guided practice before
• Create a desire and need to communicate
• Change classroom dynamics
• Careful planning
• With certain activities you may need to allow
students time to think about what they are
going to say
31. Guidelines for a free/creative speaking activity
Before the lesson
• Decide on your aims: what you want to do and why.
• Try to predict any problems the students might have.
• Work out how long the activity will take and tailor to the time
• Prepare any necessary materials.
• Work out your instructions.
32. During the activity
• Try to arouse the students' interest through relating the topic to the students‘
interests and experience.
• Leave any structure or vocabulary students may need on the board for reference.
• Make sure that students know the aim of the activity by giving clear instruction and
• Make sure students have enough time to prepare.
• Make the activity more a 'process' rather than a 'product'.
• Monitor the activity with no interruption except to provide help and
encouragement if necessary.
• Evaluate the activity and the students' performance to give feedback.
• Wait until after the activity has finished before correcting.
33. After the activity
• Provide feedback
• Include how well the class communicated. Focus more on what
they were able to do rather than on what they couldn't do.
• Sometimes you can record the activity for discussion afterwards.
Focus more on the possible improvements rather than the
• Note down repeated mistakes and group correct it. Individual
mistakes are corrected individually.
34. Writing skills
Writing a text has quite a number of
differences which separates it from speaking.
Not only are there differences in grammar,
vocabulary, but also in spelling, layout and
Despite these differences, many of these
factors are as those for speaking, need to be
considered and incorporated.
Incorrect spelling can not only create misunderstandings but
also can often be perceived, by the reader, to reflect a lack
of education. Spelling in English is very difficult by the fact
that many words that are pronounced the same are written
differently and some words are written the same but
A single sound in English can be written in many different
ways, because it is not a phonetic language. As teachers, we
need to drag the students' attention to the different ways
of pronouncing the same letters and have them do exercises
to discover the rules. Spelling differences between English
and American English plus the new kind of 'slang' emerging
through the internet and e-mail- don't exactly help either.
One of the best ways to help students with spelling is
through extensive reading.
36. Layout and punctuation
Once again, this can present the students with major
problems if the rules of their first language are
significantly different from those of English. In reality
(despite the many rules) punctuation is a matter of
personal style, but totally incorrect usage can lead to
rather awkward and difficult looking pieces of writing.
To help students learn different layouts of writing, they
need to be exposed to, and be given the chance to
practice with many different styles. After completing a
piece of written work, they get to check it over for
grammar, vocabulary usage as well as punctuation and
spelling. As with speaking activities, students will often
require planning time for written work.
37. Creative writing
Many of the same principles need to be applied to
writing activities as speaking activities. If they have
no desire or need to write the result is likely to be
somewhat less than spectacular. Creative writing
should be encouraged, as it engages the students and
the finished work usually provides them with the
sense of pride. Typical creative writing tasks may
include poetry, story writing and plays.
Although most writing in the 'real world' is an
individual act, there is nothing to stop the teachers
assigning students to work in pairs or groups,
particularly for creative writing where the input of
ideas from different sources may be helpful if not