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  2. 2. The area of technology and second language teachingand learning despite the fact that revisions for theterm are suggested regularly (Chapelle, 2001, p.3)The search for and study of applications of the computerin language teaching and learning ( Levy, 1997, p.1)Definitions of Call
  3. 3. CALL has come to encompass issues of materialdesign, technologies, pedagogical theories andmodes of instruction. Materials from CALL caninclude those which are purpose-made for languagelearning and those which adapt existing computer-based materials, video and other materials (Beatty, 2003, p, 7-8)Any process in which a learner uses a computer and, asaresult, improves his or her language (Beatty, 2003, p.7)
  4. 4.  CALL dates back to the 1960s, when it was firstintroduced on university mainframe computers The PLATO project, initiated at the University ofIllinois in 1960, is an important landmark in theearly development of CALL The advent of the microcomputer in the late 1970sbrought computing within the range of a wideraudience, resulting in a boom in the development ofCALL programs The first publications of books on CALL in theearly 1980s.History of Call
  5. 5. Three historical phases of CALL according toWarschauer (1996)[21] and Warschauer &Healey (1998• Behavioristic CALL: conceived in the 1950s andimplemented in the 1960s and 1970s.• Communicative CALL: 1970s to 1980s.• Integrative CALL: embracing Multimedia andthe Internet: 1990s.Development of Call
  6. 6. 1. CALL-specific software: applications designed todevelop and facilitate language learning, such asCD-ROMs, web-based interactive languagelearning exercises/quizzes (see CD-ROM examplesfor language learning)2. Generic software: applications designed forgeneral purposes, such as word-processors(Word), presentation software (PowerPoint, seean e-book made by students "Many Moons"), andspreadsheet (Excel), that can be used to supportlanguage learning (see examples of using Excel forlanguage learning & teaching) *Also see MicrosoftOffice Online Templates)Types of CALL programs
  7. 7. 3. Web-based learning programs: onlinedictionaries, onlineencyclopedias, onlineconcordancers, news/magazine sites, e-texts, web-quests, webpublishing, blog, wiki, etc.4. Computer-mediated communication(CMC) programs: synchronous - onlinechat; asynchronous - email, discussionforum, message board
  8. 8. • multiple-choice &true/false quizzes• gap-fillingexercise/cloze• matching• re-ordering/sequencing• crossword puzzles• games• simulations• writing & word-processing• concordancing• webquests/searching• web publishing• onlinecommunication(synchronous andasynchronous)Types of CALL activities
  9. 9. • The term CALI (Computer-assistedlanguage instruction) was in use beforeCALL in 1960s-1970s• CALL began to replace CALI in the early1980s• An alternative term, Technology-enhancedlanguage learning (TELL), also emergedaround the early 1990sTerm of CALL