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waste handling in healthcare facility(Tati).pptx

  1. Waste Handling In Healthcare Facility Presented by PhD Student Ms.Taghreed H Hawsawi Under Supervesion of :- Prof. Afaf Salah Abdulmuhsan
  2. • Define health-care waste. • Recognize advantages of good HCWM. • Articulating types of medical waste. • Classified a hazardous of health-care waste. • Identifying factors that affect the rate of waste generation. • Apply the improvement measures of waste management system. • Articulate the types of hazards for health-care waste. • Implementing HCW handling and disposal.
  3. Health care waste management (HCWM) is a process to help ensure proper hospital hygiene and safety of health care workers and communities. It includes planning and procurement, construction, staff training and behavior, proper use of tools, machines and pharmaceuticals, proper disposal methods inside and outside the hospital, and evaluation.
  4. Definition of health- care waste • The management, storage, collection, transportation, treatment, utilization, processing, and final disposal of health- care wastes, including the recovery and recycling of materials from wastes. • WHO defines medical waste as waste generated by health care activities, ranging from used needles and syringes to soiled dressings, body parts, diagnostic samples, blood, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, medical devices and radioactive materials. Waste management is an essential part of health care
  5. • The need for proper HCWM has been gaining recognition slowly. It can: • Help control nosocomial diseases (hospital acquired infections), complementing the protective effect of proper hand washing; • Reduce community exposure to multi-drug resistant bacteria; • Dramatically reduce HIV/AIDS, sepsis, and Hepatitis transmission from dirty needles and other improperly cleaned/disposed medical items
  6. • Control zoonoses (diseases passed to humans through insects, birds, rats and other animals). • Cut cycles of infection. • Easily and cost-effectively address health care worker safety issues, including reducing risk of needle sticks. • Erevan illegal repackaging and resale of contaminated needles. • Avoid negative long-term health effects; eg, cancer, from the environmental release of toxic substances such as dioxin, mercury and others.
  7. Includes all the waste generated within health-care facilities:- • Research centers and • laboratories related to medical procedures. • Waste originating from minor and scattered sources. • Waste produced in the course of health care undertaken in the home (e.g. home dialysis, self-administration of insulin, recuperative care). health-care waste
  8. general health-care waste “non-hazardous ” - Between 75% and 90% of the waste produced by health- care providers is comparable to domestic waste. It comes mostly from:- 1- The administrative 2- kitchen and housekeeping functions at health-care facilities. 3- Packaging waste and waste generated during maintenance of health-care buildings. - The remaining 10–25% of health-care waste is regarded as “hazardous” and may pose a variety of environmental and health risks
  9. classification of hazardous health-care waste
  10. Sharps waste Sharps are items that could cause cuts or puncture wounds including:- • needles • hypodermic needles • scalpels and other blades • knives • Infusion sets • broken glass and pipettes. Whether or not they are infected, such items are usually considered highly hazardous health-care waste and should be treated as if they were potentially infected.
  11. Infectious waste Material suspected to contain pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi) in sufficient concentration or quantity to cause disease in susceptible hosts. This category includes: • • waste contaminated with blood or other body fluids. • • cultures and stocks of infectious agents from laboratory work. • • waste from infected patients in isolation wards.
  12. Pathological waste • Pathological waste consists of tissues, organs, body parts, blood, body fluids and other waste from surgery and autopsies on patients with infectious diseases. • It also includes human fetuses and infected animal carcasses. • Recognizable human or animal body parts are sometimes called anatomical waste. • Pathological waste may include healthy body parts that have been removed during a medical procedure or produced during medical research.
  13. Pharmaceutical waste, including genotoxic waste Pharmaceutical waste includes:- • Expired • Unused • Spilt • Contaminated pharmaceutical products • Prescribed and proprietary drugs • The category also includes discarded items heavily contaminated during the handling
  14. Chemical waste Chemical waste consists of discarded solid, liquid and gaseous chemicals. for example, from diagnostic and experimental work and from cleaning and disinfecting procedures. • Chemical waste from health care is considered to be hazardous if it has at least one of the following properties:- • • Toxic (harmful) • • Corrosive (e.g. acids of pH 12) • • Flammable • • Reactive (explosive, water reactive, shock sensitive) • • Oxidizing.
  15. Non-hazardous or general waste is waste that has not been in contact with infectious agents, hazardous chemicals or radioactive substances and does not pose a sharps hazard More than half of all non- hazardous waste from hospitals is paper, cardboard and plastics, while the rest comprises discarded food, metal, glass, textiles, plastics and wood.
  16. Factors affect the rate of waste generation, including: • Level of activity (often measured in terms of the number of occupied beds, number of patients per day, and/or number of staff). • Type of department (e.g. general ward, surgical theatre, office). • Type or level of facility (e.g. clinic, provincial hospital). • Location (rural or urban). • Regulations or policies on waste classification. • Segregation practices. • Temporal variations (e.g. weekday versus weekend, seasonal). • Level of infrastructure development of the country.
  17. Improve The Waste Management System Systematic assessment, one could: • Identify locations in the health-care facility where good waste segregation is undertaken and where segregation practices need to be improved • Determine the potential for recycling and other waste-minimization measures • Estimate the quantities of hazardous health-care waste that require special handling • Obtain data to specify and size waste collection and transport equipment, storage areas, treatment technology and disposal arrangements to be used.
  18. Types of hazards of health- care waste presence of infectious agents A genotoxic or cytotoxic chemical composition presence of toxic or hazardous chemicals or biologically aggressive pharmaceuticals presence of radioactivity presence of used sharps
  19. HCW handling and disposal
  20. HCW worker safety and procurement issues Ensure worker safety, it is normally necessary to procure plastic bags, trash bins, ‘sharps’ containers, and sometimes even special trucks. ensure access to disposable gloves and other protective equipment for staff (eg boots, aprons, thick rubber gloves), needles and syringes, laboratory equipment, cleansing agents, and tubes/hoses/other items associated with diagnostic and intensive care machines. Availability and costs of associated utility systems such as hot and/or cold water, electricity, sources of heating, etc, must be considered.
  21. Training all health care workers • Techniques associated with newly procured items and medical equipment is crucial to proper HCWM. • All workers in the facility need some training on the importance of proper HCWM, and their roles and responsibilities. • Information about cleaning techniques and protocols should be prominently displayed. • Appropriate vaccinations and barrier mechanisms such as gloves and masks should be made available to all staff coming in contact with HCW, including cleaning staff and engineers.
  22. Altin S et al. (2018). Determination of hospital waste composition and disposal methods: a case study. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 12(2):251–255. Awad AR, Obeidat M, Al-Shareef M (2018). Mathematical-statistical models of generated hazardous hospital solid waste. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 39(2):313–327. Chih- Shan L, Fu-Tien J (2020). Physical and chemical composition of hospital waste. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 14(3):145–150. Christen J (2017). Dar es Salaam Urban Health Project. Health care waste management in district health facilities: situational analysis and system development. St Gallen, Switzerland, Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management. DEAT (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism) (2015). National Waste Management Strategy implementation South Africa: projections for health care risk waste generation. DEAT Report Number 12/9/6. Republic of South Africa, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.