Chapter-3 Technical Communication:
1. Public speaking
2. Group discussion
3. Presentation strategies
4. Interview skills
5. Negotiation skills
6. Critical and Creative thinking in communication
(1) Public speaking
Public speaking is a process, an
act and an art of making a
speech before an audience.
Absolutely everyone from
the age of 10 to 90 has found
themselves in situations
where they have had to speak
publically. However, telling an
anecdote at a corporate party, introducing
You in class or delivering a paper at a conference does not necessarily make you a public
It is not enough to talk in front of a group of people to be a brilliant public speaker. Your goal
should not be limited with informing your audience or expressing your thoughts publically,
but to changing emotions, actions, and attitudes, and to leaving your listeners moved by the
words and touched by their meaning.
“How to do it?” – has been a question many brilliant speakers have asked themselves.
Many tips, techniques and rules have been elaborated on to find the best way to influence,
motivate, entertain and persuade people. Some of these rules go back thousands of years,
yet they have not lost their actuality and have been widely used by such world-known
speakers as Abraham Lincoln, Winston Churchill, John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Nelson
Mandela, Barack Obama, Jim Rohn and Anthony Robbins.
But what are the main components and ‘golden rules’ of a great speech?
How have they changed throughout history?
The art of speaking in public is not new. Its long tradition can be traced back to Classical
Greece (approximately 490-322 BC). Any young men leaving at that time were expected to
acquire and develop public speaking skills as part of their duties as citizens.
The first rules of a public speech were elaborated on over 2000 years ago by the Greek
philosopher and teacher of Alexander the Great – Aristotle.
We know them as the Three Basic Parts of Persuasion:
• Ethos (credibility or the speaker)
• Logos (logic behind any conclusions drawn by a speaker)
• Pathos (emotional appeal or ability to create connection between the speaker and his
Three Styles of Speech
The three most common styles of speeches that you encounter in today’s business and social
world are - impromptu, manuscript and extemporaneous. To become a great public speaker
you will have to learn and ace each one of them, as it will allow you to speak confidently and
effectively in front of any number of listeners and in any given situation.
Impromptu speech is prompted by the occasion rather than being planned in advance. While
famous public speakers often joke that best impromptu speeches should be prepared weeks
in advance, usually in real life we have very little or no time to prepare before we speak in front
of the audience. Some examples of impromptu speech could be your boss asking you to bring
the rest of your team up to date, or a group of friends urging you to say a few words at a
This type of speech is written like a manuscript and is meant to be delivered word for word.
Manuscript speeches are used on many political and social occasions, when every word carries
a lot of weight and should not be misquoted. One of the most common examples of a
manuscript speech is a political figure delivering a speech that has been written by another
Extemporaneous speech is the most commonly used type of speech that helps to establish
emotional connection with the audience. It is built around key points, but the material can
be presented freely, allowing the speaker to make changes in their speech based on the
Later in this book we will cover the preparation of all three speech styles, but before we do
that, let us address one of the major obstacles that most people face when it comes to
speaking in front of a group of people – Fear.
Such strong emotions as anxiety and fear trigger in your body very specific “fight or flight”
response: your muscles tighten, your heart rate increases, your blood pressure goes up and
your breathing becomes shallow. While this physical reaction may be helpful in escaping
danger it is hardly helpful during the presentation (as you can neither run away from your
audience, nor fight with it). However, since your breathing rate is directly connected to
your emotional reaction, the fastest and easiest way to take your emotions under control
and regain confidence is through deep breathing. Whether you are to talk to potential
clients or make a presentation to your team, make sure that you remember to breathe deeply
and evenly before and during your speech.
Shifting focus outwards
Paul L. Witt, PhD, assistant professor of communication studies at Texas Christian University,
believes that many people perform worse than they could because they focus too much on
their physical symptoms (i.e. butterflies, shaky hands, sweaty palms) and on their
embarrassment instead of concentrating on their breathing and their speech. This problem
could be easily avoided by shifting focus from how we feel or look to the message we want to
share with our audience.
Visualization or mental rehearsal has been routinely used by many top athletes as a part of the
training for a competition. In addition to athletics, research has shown that visualization
helps to improve performance in such areas as communication, public speaking and education.
To ensure that your presentation goes smoothly, aside from actual preparation and the
rehearsal of your speech, take 10-15 minutes a day to relax, close your eyes and visualize the
room you are speaking in, the people in the auditorium and yourself confidently delivering
your speech, smiling, and moving across the stage.
Focusing on facts, not fears
Instead of focusing on irrational fears (e.g. mind going blank, audience getting bored)
concentrate your thoughts on positive facts such as: “I have practiced my speech many
times”, “I am an expert on this topic”, “I have notes with major bullet points to keep the
structure of my talk”. Focusing on positive facts and on what you can offer takes your
thoughts away from irrational scenarios about what can go wrong.
Building your speech on clarity, not complexity
While it is often tempting to include as much useful information in your speech as possible,
practice shows that this might not be a good idea. Organizing the speech or presentation
around two three main points, allows you to relax and not worry so much about running out
of time or forgetting to mention something important to the listener.
2- Group Discussion
What is a Group Discussion?
A Group Discussion (GD) is a
technique used by corporate
companies, educational institutes,
and other organizations to judge
the communication skills of the
Communication skill is a crucial
factor than technical knowledge in
any corporate environment.
Hence, many companies are now
making group discussion as their first criteria for screening the candidates before the
face-to-face interviews. There indeed is a reason for giving importance to GD.
These are highly essential in today's competitive environment. A good commentator is
able to receive information as sent. Everything gets easy when you know how to convey
the message. English should be made the official language in a GD.
The use of slangs and the garbage words like “ummm” or “uhhh” should be avoided as
they are also called speech killers. They interpret flow and make it less appealing.
While in the discussion with group, the pitch of the voice should be lowered as shrill
voices usually annoys the other person and will make a wrong impression on the panel
of judges in GD.
If the group discussion becomes chaotic and you are not been able to enter in the GD,
then in that case, the candidate should higher the pitch of the voice to start and
gather the attention of the other members and then once they are attentive, he must
bring to the normal pitch . It is not like shouting first that “guys listen to me!”, but
stating with something like “FRIENDS (high), I think……… (Low)”. I.e. lower the voice
to the appropriate level. This will also maintain the decorum of the GD as well as the
candidate will be able to give his/ her point.
Do not touch your face
Most of us have a habit of touching our own face a number of times, while talking to
others. It has been found that an average person touches his/her face between 2000
to 3000 times. Infect, you would have touched your face a couple of times while reading
this article. Almost all of us have the habit of touching our nose, our lips, and our
forehead, but this gives a signal that we are either nervous or we are not being honest.
Do not shake your leg
Shaking one's leg is another most common thing that is difficult to control. Even though
it might be just a habit, but the message it conveys to the interviewer is that you are
Don't sit up too straight
Sit up straight, and lean slightly forward in your chair. In addition to projecting
interest and engagement in the interaction, aligning your body's position to that of the
interviewer's shows admiration and agreement.
Limit your Hand movements
People generally use their hands to express enthusiasm or convey what they are
thinking effectively. It does help in elaborating things. But be careful, overdoing it can
irritate someone, especially when he is noticing your hands.
Try to keep your hands in the "Truth Plane" i.e. the area in front of your belly, a visual
expression that communicates the right mix of composed, competent resolve and level-
When you sit down to talk, don’t slouch or lean back – both imply disinterest. Sit
straight up and lean slightly towards the members, suggesting respect and
attentiveness. Be sure to nod occasionally, smile and leave your hands casually in your
lap or resting on the arms of the chair. You also try paying attention to your
interviewer’s body language to make sure you are both on the same page.
Don’t be distracting
By playing with your hair, rubbing or scratching your skin, you may come off as nervous
and untrustworthy. Likewise, don’t cross your arms or lean towards the exit – your
interviewer might find you standoffish, distant, or disengaged. Keep the focus on the
members and what they are saying – people are naturally flattered by attention.
Remember to relax
Breathe, you’re almost there. Imagine yourself at once alert and at ease. Smile. You
look great. Answer a couple more questions and ask a few of your own. Stress shows in
your face and throughout your entire body. It’s very difficult to feign relaxation – you
actually have to be relaxed. To do this, make sure you practice relaxation techniques
Wrapping up? Stand up, smile, and shake hands after the GD is over. Be respectful and
thank the other person for their time. Exchange the necessary pleasantries and leave
slowly, chin up. There is a reason for expressions like “chin up” – our expressions and
posture really do indicate important things.
Try to take the initiative.
Don’t wait for the others to start the discussion. Always volunteer yourself and start
the discussions in an extremely confident manner. Introduce yourself and your team
members and then start with the topic but one thing to remember here is that one
must initiate the Group Discussion only when he or she is well versed with the topic.
Don’t take the risk if you yourself are not very clear about your thoughts.
One must speak only if he is well prepared with the topic.
Don’t just speak for the sake of points or marks; speak only when you are absolutely
sure about what you are speaking. Never depend on guess works in group discussions as
it sometimes can seriously go against you. Avoid using slangs or crack jokes in between
the discussions as it is considered highly unprofessional.
Never be rigid in group discussions.
Always keep in mind that the other person is also as learned as you. Always listen to
what he is saying and then only respond. Be a good and a patient listener. Don’t just
simply draw conclusions as there is always a room for discussions. Debate logically and
sensibly and try to take everyone along with you.
Read a lot and always keep your eyes and ears open.
Always begin your day with the newspaper and know what is happening around you. An
individual must be aware of the current events to succeed well in a group discussion.
Be alert always.
A participant usually gets around 15 minutes to think about the topic. You need to think
fast and cover as much as you can. Always take care of your words. The content has to
be sensible, crisp and well supported with examples or real life situations. Don’t adopt
a laidback attitude or yawn in between group discussions.
Take care of your dressing as well.
Don’t wear flashy clothes while going for a group discussion or interview. Female
candidates should also avoid cakey makeup or flaunt heavy jewellery. The clattering
sounds of bangles sometimes act as a disturbing element in formal discussions. Be in
professional attire and avoid loud colours.
Q.1 “Organizing content and preparing an outline plays a vital role in presentation”. Explain.
We can organise content in three parts
2 Main body
“Great minds discuss ideas,
Average minds discuss events,
Small minds discuss people.”
We can start our presentation with quotation or anecdote like above quotation. We can give brief
outline about what we are going to present. We may introduce briefly main point of presentation.
We may explain our purpose of presentation. The introduction is the most important part of your
presentation as it sets the tone for the entire presentation. Its primary purpose is to capture the
attention of the audience, usually within the first 15 seconds. Make those first few words count.
Quote someone. Share a personal story. Show a completed product. Show an unusual object. Etc.
After this, you need to introduce yourself, usually just with your name, your club, your company
If you are giving a team presentation, you may introduce each other or each of you can each
introduce yourself. Sometimes, it may even work for one person to introduce both of you. When
your introduction is finished, you need to start speaking about main body of your talk.
The body is the main part of your presentation. This is where you explain your topic and where
all your information is presented. The organization of the body is critical because the audience
needs to be able to follow what you are saying and/or doing.
You should count major points. It can be three to five. If you have more than five, the audience
can get lost or confused. If you have fewer than three, you probably don’t have enough
information or your topic is too simple or narrow. Arrange your points in a logical order and
then give information to support each point. Examples of ways to organize points are to number
them (1, 2, 3....); put them in a time frame (past, present, future); use narration (tell a story from
beginning to end); or present them as a problem-effect-solution (state a problem, describe its
effect, and then suggest ways to solve the problem).
All information you present in the main body of your presentation must be accurate and
understandable. You need to offer enough information to cover your topic thoroughly and
The Conclusion Your conclusion should be short and concise. It should summarize or highlight
the main points you made or emphasize what the audience should have learned. Do not restate
everything you said in the body and never introduce new information at this time.
Last, you need to ask for questions. Be sure that you repeat each question before you give an
answer. Not only does this ensure everyone hears the question, but it gives you the chance to
make sure you understood the question. If you get a question you can’t answer, simply say you
don’t know. Never make up an answer or bluff. If possible, provide a resource where the answer
could be found. It isn’t practical to offer to look it up and get back to the person.
Q,2 Why is it important to define the purpose of presentation? Discuss the importance of
‘audience’ and ‘locale’ while making a presentation. (2016)
”Great minds have purposes, others have wishes”
- Washington Irving
It is always important to know purpose. If we do not know what is purpose of doing something.
We will not get anything. We make presentation, because we have certain purpose in mind. We
need ask question what is purpose or objectives of my presentation? Why you are making your
presentation? Bear in mind what you want to achieve and what you want your audience to take
away with them. Once you have decided upon your objectives, you are in a much better position
to make strategic decisions about the design and tone of your presentation.
Understanding the purpose of your presentation is the key to Success. In general a presentation
can have two purposes: To inform or to persuade. Informative presentation gives the audience
information. Persuasive presentation tries to explain something. Be clear with you purpose. Do
you want to inform or explain?
“Make sure you have finished speaking before your audience has finished listening”
Above quotation suggests that you have to keep audience in mind while making presentation.
Your audience will have a variety of different experiences, interests and levels of knowledge. A
powerful presenter will need to see these and prepare for and respond to them accordingly.
You should try to know their like and dislike. Whatever you speak if they do not like, they will
not listen to you. If youth is audience then presenter should give example from religious stuff
but he or she can give example from movies. Because they watch movie.
Presenter should also try to know culture of audience. If presenter know culture of audience then
he or she can be connected easily with audience. Presenter have to remove technical jargon
because audience might not know that word. It is advisable to learn few sentences of their mother
tongue and speak to audience, they really like when they know that presenter knows their mother
tongue. Presenter should also try to know their interest.
Q.3 what is the importance of interaction among the presenter and audience during a
“Audiences are made up of individual people.
The art of successful presentation is talking to an audience
As if you are talking to one person”
- Steve Jobs
Listening to a presentation for any length of time can be a difficult process. If the talk doesn’t
engage their attention, the audience will start to feel distanced from the talk, begin to lose track
of the flow of information and eventually fail to absorb your ideas and insights. To engage an
audience fully, the presentation needs to be energetic, purposeful and staged as if it is a direct
conversation between two interested parties.
Interaction among the presenter and audience make presentation dynamic and interesting. It
makes presentation alive and energetic. Purpose of presentation is served. Interaction solve
doubt of audience. Presenter also can know something from audience during interaction. It
makes presentation fruitful.
Interaction give chance to audience to ask question. It is interaction that gives confidence to
presenter. Interaction encourages audience to participate more in presentation. It increases
knowledge of audience. People can learn many things from interaction of audience and presenter.
If presentation has become one sided, Interaction can make presentation from both side. It makes
communication very effective.
Q.4 Explain how to make effective presentation (2014,2015,2017)
Q.5“Answers to the questions Who, Why, Where, When, How and what are essential while
planning a presentation.” – Elucidate (2015)
“When we speak, we do not just present our ideas
But we also present our self in front of people.”
- Donald trump
Different People present their idea differently. When one idea is presented by someone, we
might not like but if same idea is presented by powerful presenter, we like to receive. This
is power of effective presentation. It has become part of every employee in prestigious
company. Success and failure of person depend on presentation.
You need to ask question who is your audience. Question who means who are your
audience. Your audience will have a variety of different experiences, interests and levels
of knowledge. A powerful presenter will need to see these and prepare for and respond to
them accordingly. Ask yourself:
How much will your audience already know about your topic?
How can you link new material to things they might already understand?
Will you need to win them over to a particular point of view?
You have to remove technical jargon because audience might not know that word. You
have to see their like/dislike. You should see also size of audience. You may take help of
polyglot. And you have to understand their culture. It is advisable to learn few sentences
of their mother tongue.
Second question that you need to ask is why they have come to listen to you. Question
Why means what is purpose or objectives of your presentation? Why do you want to make
presentation? What do you want to explain? If you are clear with your purpose, you can
make better Ask yourself:
What do you want your audience to have understood?
Do you want to inform or explain?
Understanding the purpose of your presentation is the key to Success. In general a
presentation can have two purposes: To inform or to persuade. Informative presentation
gives the audience information. Persuasive presentation is an effort to change/influence
the opinions, beliefs, or behaviours of the audience.
Third question is where you want your presentation. Question where means venue, a place
where you want to present your idea. If there are less people, you can choose any room
and if there are hundred people, you have to choose large hall.
Do you want small class or hall or auditorium?
Does venue have projector of white board?
Question when refers to time. What time would you choose to make presentation? You
have to choose convenient time for audience. You should choose time when your audience
is free. You may choose Sunday, because most of people are free on Sunday.
Question How refers to mode of presentation. You have to choose certain ways to present
your ideas. Following modes can be used for making presentation.
(1) Extemporaneous: Sometime it happens with us that we have to make presentation in
less time this kind of presentation is called extemporaneous. It is Flexible and
spontaneous. It depends on your experience and knowledge.
(2) Manuscript: Manuscript mode means presenting your ideas through reading. It is
permanent and accurate, no need of memorisation but disadvantages that there would not
be eye contact, you cannot change ideas, It demands reading skills.
(3) Impromptu: It is instant presentation. Time is not given to you. It is natural,
spontaneous but Speaker should have knowledge for this mode.
(4) Memorization: It is speaking orally. If your memory is good then you can memorize
details and present it well, you can have eye contact but it is not suitable if you memory
is poor, you may forget also.Question how also refer to medium you choose to present,
you may choose PPT or White board to make presentation.
What means what content you are going to present? Content means ideas that you want to
present to audience. You should be prepared about your content, you should read a lot
about your subject to be confidant. If you have good command over content then you will
not be afraid. You will be able speak well.
Giving an effective presentation means working with both the audience and the
topic. It’s important to know how to relate with audience. In short, we have to take
care of audience, venue, time, purpose, ways and content.
HOW TO OVERCOME YOUR
FEAR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
But the term “public speaking” no longer refers
to just talking in front of a physical audience. It
can also mean presenting to a virtual audience
through online events, meetings, conferences.
In this short paper, Daniel Waas, Director of
Product Marketing, Communications Cloud,
looks at how you can overcome your fear of
I hate speaking in front of large groups of
people, yet I love picturing the standing ovation
after delivering a great speech (you have to
dream big, right?).
And if you’ve ever seen a documentary about
people with phobias, they’re always told to face
their fears. So after trying to think of anything
other than doing just that, I challenged myself
to go and speak at large events in order to
overcome my fear of public speaking.
I know — why would someone do that?
But it worked. Here are a few things I learnt on
my quest for presentation zen.
WHAT ARE THE COMMON
FEARS WHEN IT COMES TO
Looking like a fool
Boring the audience
Being lost for words
People noticing your nervousness
People hating the presentation or,
worse, getting up to leave
Now all of these are valid concerns, but what
if I told you that there’s a way to avoid them?
Nothing will happen to you if you follow my
four-step plan to public-speaking invincibility.
IN ADVANCE SO YOU
CAN CONCENTRATE ON
Ultimately, you want to calm your nerves.
Knowing that you’ve spent the necessary
amount of time preparing not only your
presentation but also your environment will
ease that nervous feeling.
Here are a few things to check before the big day:
WHAT EXACTLY WILL BE
AVAILABLE TO YOU?
X Laptop/tablet (do you need to bring your
X Projector or display
X Presentation clicker
X Power socket to plug in your laptop
FOR ONLINE PRESENTATIONS
X Will you present from your machine or
control the presentation via someone
X Will you need a webcam?
X Have you got a headset with a
X If no headset, have you got a telephone
with loudspeaker capability so your
hands will be free to control the
X Have you got the log-in details?
X Have you set up a rehearsal beforehand
so you can become familiar with your
technology and surroundings?
SLIDES AND NOTES
X Have you printed out your slides and
notes in case of some sort of technical
failure? In the worse case scenario,
you will still be able to present, even if
people can’t see your presentation.
X Have you got the presentation saved
in more than one place? For example,
try multiple memory sticks in case one
doesn’t work. You can also email the
presentation to yourself or save it to
a cloud storage service so you can find it
quickly if you’re in a rush.
X Is your laptop fully charged and have you
got the power cable?
Now that you’ve got the external factors under
control, it’s time to talk topic.
STEP #2: DON’T ALLOW THE
TOPIC TO PETRIFY YOU
The one thing you’ll need most when speaking
publicly is confidence. And nothing undermines
your confidence more than being absolutely
clueless about the topic you’re supposed to
There are two ways to
avoid getting rattled:
1. Pick a topic you’re an expert on.
2. If that is not an option and you’re stuck
with a topic you know zilch about, cram
as much knowledge as possible into your
brain before the speech. Ideally, even
get some hands-on experience with
whatever it is you’ll need to talk about.
Phew! Now that you know your stuff and you’re
more prepared, the likelihood of looking like an
utter fool has just decreased tenfold.
STEP #3: HAVE A STUNNING
Before you even open your mouth, your
audience will form an impression of you just by
looking at your slides. So it’s imperative that you
spend time crafting a stunning presentation —
it’s just as important as the speech you give.
Here are some tips that work for me:
Use one idea per slide
Keep to one idea per slide. Ideally, summarise
the idea in fewer than five words. Three if you
feel up to it. One if you like a challenge. Or if
you’re feeling really brave, use no words at all.
Add a new slide for each idea you have until
you’re out of ideas.
Conjure up a matching image for
If you’re looking for pictures, there is a great blog
post here with over 15 image sources for your
For each idea, take your matching image and
make it fill your whole slide. Then add the words
(if any) in big bold letters (30+ font size). This
can be really effective: having just a few words
on your slides will enable your audience to focus
on what you’re saying, rather than trying to read
and listen at the same time.
Arrange your ideas into a story arc
A story arc is a way of telling a story over
various chapters or episodes. It can be
particularly effective in public speaking. Here
are three examples from my own speeches:
X In a speech about lead management,
I used the circle of life as an analogy,
telling the life story of a lead from
conception to birth, to death and finally
X Talking about a website relaunch, I used
a photo of myself stretching for an
unattainable goal pictured as a castle in
the sky. I then told the story of how we
put that goal within reach and ended
with another photo: the castle in the sky
firmly in my grip.
X In a speech about flexible working, I told
micro stories about how workshifting
has impacted my daily life.
The benefit: you’ll have a much easier time
memorising your speech and remembering
what’s next. Presenting all of it as part of
an overarching story will also help hold
everybody’s attention, so boredom will be less
And if that wasn’t reason enough to try stories,
your heroic presentation will make a great
impression on your audience, and you’ll be on
your way to winning them over.
STEP #4: PRACTICE AS IF
YOUR LIFE WERE AT STAKE
When I prepped for my first big speech, I read
up on presenting. I was blown away when I
learned Steve Jobs rehearsed his presentations
weeks in advance and two days straight leading
up to the event.
If Steve Jobs managed to get that into his
undoubtedly super-busy schedule, what was my
excuse for not being able to?
Ever since then, I’ve rehearsed my presentations
at least five times out loud, sometimes coercing
my wife or colleagues to listen and provide
feedback. Then I spend extra time on polishing
the opening and closing sequences and
rearranging words and sentences until they feel
It all ties back to confidence. If you’ve rehearsed
well, your confidence is high and that shows
when you present. A smooth opening. No
Best of all, feeling secure about the opening
line takes away much of the nervousness
immediately before you go on stage. And once
you’re past your first sentence, you’re
in the flow.
Works every time!
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Daniel Waas is Director of Product Marketing for the
Communications Cloud. He’s a geek at heart who
loves LEGO, sci-fi and the occasional video game if
time permits. Despite these severe dating handicaps,
he was lucky enough to get married and even
luckier to have a son. You can connect with Daniel
on Google+, LinkedIn or Twitter.
FACE TO FACE INTERVIEW ADVICE GUIDE
Your interviewers are looking to appoint someone who
genuinely wants to join their company, who shows
enthusiasm for the role, is committed to working in their
offices, is well presented, and demonstrates excellent
interpersonal and communication skills.
An interview is a two-way communication process. It is your
opportunity to find out more about the position and it’s an
opportunity for the interviewers to assess whether you have
the relevant skills and experience required.
The interviewers will be looking for someone with
confidence and character, who is a team player and will fit
in within their company. They will be able to provide more
information about the role and the company during the
We advise you prepare answers to commonly asked questions so you can respond confidently and concisely. You may
be asked why you are seeking alternative employment, more about your current skills, workload and experience, your
long term plans and what you can offer the company.
We also recommend you prepare some questions to ask the interviewers e.g. what will my day look like? What is the
team atmosphere like? You may find it beneficial to take a pen and pad so you can take notes during the interview if
We have created this advice guide to give you as much help and guidance to ensure your face to face interview goes
2. Questions to ask the interviewer
3. Typical questions you may be asked
4. Interview dos and don’ts
Preparation is the first essential step towards a successful
interview. It’s normal to feel nervous because you want to
do your best but if you prepare and practice you can get the
better of your nerves and give yourself the best chance of
getting the job.
The interviewers will expect you to have visited the company
website beforehand and have a brief understanding of what
the company does so it is important to be prepared.
SIMPLE BUT REGULARLY FORGOTTEN POINTS
Make sure you know the exact location, time and date of the interview and the interviewer’s full
Always wear smart business clothes. Don’t dress casually, even if you know the company policy is
Investigate specific, relevant facts about the company; where are their offices? What products and
services do they offer? You should also research the company history and growth potential.
Refresh your memory about your current or former employment; what tasks did you do? What
projects did you work on? What results did you achieve? You will be expected to be able to talk
Think about what questions you want to ask the interviewers. Remember an interview is a two-way
process, you should try to determine if the company will be a good fit for you and will provide the
opportunity for growth and development.
2. QUESTIONS TO ASK THE INTERVIEWER
Here is a list of potential questions you could ask the interviewer. The answers to these questions should help you
qualify whether or not the role is going to be a good fit for you.
• What exactly will the role involve?
• What does a typical day look like?
• Why is the position available?
• What is the broad culture of the company?
• What induction and training do you offer?
• What sort of people have done well in this sort of role?
• Are there advanced training programmes available?
• What are the company’s key objectives for the next 3 years?
• What are your best-selling products or services?
• Is there room for progression within the company?
• What are the main challenges currently facing the company?
• Could you describe how this role relates to the overall structure of the company?
• How will my performance be measured?
3. TYPICAL QUESTIONS YOU MAY BE ASKED
By preparing answers to typical interview questions you will feel more confident, and be able to deliver prompt and
precise responses. There is nothing worse than being asked a question in an interview and not having a clue what to
Here are some typical questions you may be asked in an interview, think about the answers you could give that relate
to the requirements of the job specification.
• What do you know about our company?
• What interests you about our company’s products/services?
• Why would you like to work for us?
• What attracted you to this particular position?
• What qualities do you think you could bring to our business?
• Why did you choose a career in [……………]?
• What qualifications do you possess?
• What were your responsibilities in your last role?
• Why are you looking to leave your current job/why did you leave your last job?
• What have you learned from the previous jobs you have had?
• Is there any training you are looking to undertake in the near future?
• How many sick days have you taken in the past year?
• Are you willing to be flexible in your work hours?
• How good are you at prioritising your workload?
• Where do you see yourself in 5 years?
• What are your salary requirements?
• Tell us about the biggest change that you have had to deal with. How did you cope with it?
• Describe a situation where you had to explain something complex to a colleague or a client. Which problems did you
encounter and how did you deal with them?
• Tell us about your biggest failure. How did you recover and what have you learnt from that incident?
• Describe a situation in which you were a member of team. What did you do to positively contribute to it?
• What are your main strengths and weaknesses?
• What have you done in your career that shows initiative?
• What are your hobbies?
• How would you describe yourself in three words?
• Is it easy for you to get to our office?
• How do you evaluate success?
• Are you willing to relocate?
• What style of management do you prefer?
• What kind of job are you looking for?
• Do you have any questions?
4. INTERVIEW DOS AND DON’TS
Throughout the interview the interviewers will be assessing your strengths and weaknesses as well as your attitude,
ability, skills and personality.
DO arrive several minutes early. Late arrival for a job interview is never excusable. If you are delayed, try to
let someone know beforehand.
DO dress smartly.
DO shake hands firmly at the beginning and end of the interview.
DO wait until offered a chair before sitting. Sit upright, look alert and interested at all times. Be a good
listener as well as a good talker. Smile.
DO engage the interviewer using strong and confident eye-contact.
DO try to gather a full understanding of the position and duties early in the interview, so you can effectively
relate your appropriate background and skills.
DO ensure your strengths are presented to the interviewer in a factual and sincere manner. Your objective is
to sell yourself and make the interviewer aware of the potential benefits you can bring.
DO communicate your determination to get the job at all times. It’s better to be in a position where you can
choose from a number of jobs, rather than only one.
DO remember to ask the interviewer some questions at the end to show you are interested and to find out
everything you need to know about the role and the company.
DO thank the interviewer for their time at the end.
DO ask for a glass of water at the start of the interview. Sipping on water may help calm your nerves and
will also give you time to think if you are struggling on a question.
DON’T make negative remarks about your present or former employers or colleagues.
DON’T over-talk. If the interviewer steers conversation towards politics or economics, it is usually best to
respond in reserved, non-committed fashion.
DON’T ask about salary, holidays or bonuses at the initial interview, but be aware of your market value and
be prepared to specify your required salary or range.
DON’T stray away from the question.
ADVICE AND INFORMATION
For more candidate advice and industry news:
www.intapeople.com Follow us
Ashok Pandya Subject: MC (GTU) Semester:4
Interview skills: FAQs
1 ‘So, tell me about yourself.
Project or training (Matches with job
Academic achievements and promotions.
2 Why should we hire you?
Always try to see from angel of interviewer
Talk about benefit for organisation
Skills set matches with job profile
Your client can easily convinced by me. (Convincing skills)
I can solve problems (Problem solving skills, Presence of mind)
Ashok Pandya Subject: MC (GTU) Semester:4
3 Why do you want to work with us?
Your requirement and my skills
Better opportunity and challenges
3- How much salary do you expect?
Talk advantages of company and always ask more than your
Do not accept immediately
You can say no also
Understand structure of CTC before you say yes.
Always discuss net hand salary
4 What is your strength?
Explain with example
SEVEN ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE NEGOTIATIONS
December 2008 – Jerome Slavik
Adapted from Getting To Yes – Negotiating Agreements Without Giving In, R. Fisher and W. Ury
1. RELATIONSHIP: AM I PREPARED TO DEAL WITH THE RELATIONSHIP?
a) A good negotiating relationship is needed to address differences and conflicts.
b) Separate people issues from substantive issues.
c) Plan and prepare to build and maintain a good working relationship.
d) Be respectful, trustworthy and unconditional constructive.
2. COMMUNICATION: AM I READY TO LISTEN AND TALK EFFECTIVELY?
CREATING A LEARNING CONVERSATION
a) Core Skills – Basic Communication Skills in Negotiation
i. Active listening – To do active listening, we must overcome some of our
tendencies and habits that interfere with good listening.
ii. Acknowledging what has been said and felt – Have you effectively
demonstrated to the other negotiators that you have heard and
UNDERSTOOD what they have said? Use paraphrasing and summarizing.
iii. Listen to understand, speak to be understood – Have you thought about
ways to communicate with the other party by using words (and at the right
time) in a way that they will understand?
iv. Speak about yourself, not them – Have you let them know what are the
crucial issues for you and your community and how you feel about the
problem at hand? Use “I” statements.
v. Speak for a purpose – Have you thought through the timing and impact of
what you wish to say? Be clear and concise.
b) Core Skills – Communications to Gather Knowledge and Learn About Their Interests
i. Clarifying and Probing Skills
Have you thought about basic questions for clarification (including
empathetic questions) you might ask to draw out the interests from
the other negotiators? E.g. can you explain…?
Could you use consequential questions to draw out the other side?
E.g. what would you need to…?
HMS/HSDM/HSPH OMBUDS OFFICE
Melissa Brodrick, Ombudsperson, email@example.com
164 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
617-432-4040 (Ombuds line) 617-432-4041 (office line)
ii. Integrative Framing Skills
Paraphrasing – Have you given feedback in your own words or what
you understand the key concerns and interests on the other side to
Summarizing – Can you accurately draw together the main points of
the discussion up to that point in time?
3. INTERESTS: WHAT DO PEOPLE REALLY WANT?
a) Collectively identify and articulate the interests, concerns, and needs of all relevant
parties (mine, yours, theirs). Remember: most parties do not know all their
interests or necessarily agree on their interests.
b) Identify and prioritize community interests together. Get on the same page.
c) Probe for your and their unarticulated or underlying interests.
d) Share and clarify the respective interests of the parties. Move beyond speculation
about to acknowledgement of their interests.
e) Identify and share common interests as a basis to develop options.
f) Interests from the agenda.
4. OPTIONS: WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE AGREEMENTS OR BITS OF AN AGREEMENT?
a) Design options, not positions.
b) Create options to meet interests of both parties.
c) Remember when designing options they also must transparently meet their
interests. Find ways to maximize joint gains for both.
5. ALTERNATIVES: WHAT WILL I DO IF WE DO NOT AGREE?
a) Do we need to negotiate or can we satisfactorily meet our interests in other ways?
b) Identify and articulate our best/doable alternatives to a negotiated agreement.
c) Fully understand the implication, consequences, risks and costs of your and their
d) Select and improve our BATNA
e) Identify the best and worst alternatives open to the other side.
f) How can we make their BATNA worse for them? (i.e. keep them at the table)
6. LEGITIMACY: WHAT CRITERIA WILL I USE TO PERSUADE EACH OF US THAT WE ARE
NOT BEING RIPPED OFF?
a) Fairness is a governing consideration.
b) Use external criteria and objective standards as a basis to legitimize your preferred
options and as a shield against unreasonable proposals from the other side.
c) Use demonstrable “fairness” of the process and outcome to persuade them of the
merits of a proposal.
d) Offer their negotiator an attractive way to explain his decision to his principals (see
7. COMMITMENT: WHAT COMMITMENTS SHOULD I SEEK OR MAKE?
a) Get commitments at the end not the beginning.
b) Identify all of the implementation issues to be included in the agreement. No post-
c) Plan the timeframe and steps to implement the agreement.
8. CONCLUSION: WHAT IS A GOOD OUTCOME?
a) Meets interests.
b) Demonstrably fair.
c) Better than BATNA.
s:jns-rfilesjerome2008 neg. workshopseven elements of effective negotiations nov. 19-08.doc
Creativity and Critical Thinking
The Five Senses
“Our sense of self, memories, values,
beliefs and neural programming all act
as filters that manipulate sensory
input. It is our mind that converts this
sensory data into feelings and
perceptions. Thus, in effect, it is our
thoughts that create the “reality” we
see around us.”
• Agriculture and Labour
• Decisive Factors for a Stable
Job and Income;
• Knowledge of a trade
• Obedience to orders
• Information and Knowledge
• Decisive Factors for a Stable Job
• Working effectively within a team
• Self motivation
• Effective communication
• Ability to rise above the job
21st Century Skills
• Learning Skills
• Critical & Creative Thinking
• Collaborating and Communicating
• Literacy Skills
• Information Literacy
• Technology & Media Literacy
• Life Skills
• Flexibility, Initiative
• Productivity & Leadership
What is Critical Thinking
•“The word ‘critical’ when applied to persons who
judge and to their judgments, not only may, but in
very precise use does, imply an effort to see a thing
clearly and truly so that not only the good in it may be
distinguished from the bad and the perfect from the
imperfect, but also that it as a whole may be fairly
judged and valued.”
- Webster’s Dictionary of Synonyms
• Critical thinking is clear, rational and disciplined
• The thinker is open to reorganizing and raising the efficiency of
his thought process by reflecting on them
• Recognizes the errors and biases that may be present
• Critical thinkers use a group of interconnected skills to analyze,
unify and evaluate what is heard, seen or read
Critical Thinking Skills
• Ability to identify the central issue or the unifying theme and
the possible assumptions of an argument
• Ability to pull together the disparate elements in a situation
• Ability to make bias-free inferences from available data
• Ability to evaluate the veracity and authenticity of claims
Barry K. Beyer in his book Critical Thinking (1995), summarizes
the essential skills required for effective critical thinking.
The Essential Skills
1. Distinguish between variable facts and claims of value
2. Distiguishing relevant data from irrelevant information
3. Determine whether a statement is factually correct
4. Identifying whether a source is credible
5. Spotting ambiguous claims or aurguments
6. Identifying assumptions which are not stated explicity
7. Detecting bias
8. Identifying logical inconsistancies
9. Recognizing errors in the line of reasoning
10. Assesing the strength of an argument or claim
Critical Thinking Models
• Two main models for Critical Thinking
• Fayetteville State University (FSU) Quality Enhancement
• Paul Elder Model & Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA)
Paul Elder Model (PE Model)
• Most generalized model and covers a wider range of critical
• According to this model the thought process of a critical
thinker involves three components. These pertain both to
problem at hand and to the individual himself.
• Intellectual Standards
• Elements of Reasoning
• Intellectual Traits
• Standards against which we can compare the thinking
• Alignment to these standards determines whether our
thinking process can be considered critical thinking.
Elements of Reasoning
• Building blocks of reasoning
• The various aspects that a
critical thinker has to work
• The resource which he may
eventually transmute into a
• Expected of a good critical thinker
• Must develop by consistent application of the intellectual
standards to the elements of reasoning
• Called as Virtues of Mind
• Creativity – a mental process involving the generation of
new ideas or concepts, or new associations between existing
ideas or concepts.
“breaking out of established patterns to look at things in a
“the skill of being able to produce something new which
having some value”
• It involves the ability to acquire knowledge, break it down
and rearrange it in an altogether different manner to
generate something new and valuable.
“it arises out of skilful restructuring of our thoughts to
allow novel points of view about a given subject or situation.”
What makes a creative person different/special?
• Sensitivity to the existance of problems, opportunities, gaps
in knowledge, inconsistencies, and lack of harmony
• Ability to use existing knowledge in new ways to search for
• Make guesses and test their validity
“since knowledge is not always gained through language alone,
creative feelings also cannot always be expressed in words.”
Three Levels of Creativity
According to psychologist Abraham Maslow, creativity is a
facet of the highest human need – self actualization. He
proposes three levels of creativity
• Primary Creativity
• Secondary Creativity
• Integrated Creativity
• The level from which new and fundamental ideas arises
• Radically differs from what exists
• Often expressed in arts and literature
• Most spontaneous and child-like
• Not always concerned with the utility of the work
• The stress is on self-expression
• Ideas that are based on an existing concept, which take
already existing work further
• The product of collective effort and synergy
• The level of thought and planning is higher
• Level of creativity that often brings out great achievements
be it in art, literature, science, or business
• It combines the elements of primary and secondary levels of
• The spontaneity of primary creativity is channeled using
extensive thought about the required outcome
Margeret Boden, another influential researcher, stresses that
creativity is a fundamental feature of our intelligence and it is
present in everyone. He says that it is a skill which can be
learnt by anyone using systematic procedures.
Boden also defines three kinds of creativity:
• Combinatorial Creativity
• Exploratory Creativity
• Transformational Creativity
• Known ideas are combined in new and different ways to
form new ideas and concepts
• Familiar ideas are connected in unfamiliar ways
• Eg: making a collage, a poetry
• New ideas are generated by exploring structured concepts
which currently exists
• It happens often within a domain
• Often incremental but useful and steady
• It contributes greatly by improving and refining existing
structures and redefining boundaries
• Eg: Creation and use of new words like laptop, palmtop by
combining parts of already exisiting words
• The deepest kind of creativity where new ideas emerge by
radically changing the structured concepts themselves
• Forces a substantial restructuring of an artist’s thoughts
• Associated with a great leap of imagination and challenge
the existing frameworks of ideas
• Eg: Pablo Picasso changed the conceptual space of artistic
expression through Cubism
Einstein’s Theory of Relativity put an unlikey spin on the study of
• A basic capability of the human
• A skill – which can be learned and
• The product of disciplined thinking
• The result of being open to
experiences and thinking about
• A process that involves trials and
• A mystical ability that comes only to a
• Inspired or path-breaking ideas all
• A matter of waiting for inspiration to
The Creative Process
• Several other models have been proposed, but one common
theme is that the creative process involves:
• Analysis (breaking down the problem/issue into smaller more
easily understandable parts)
• Evaluation (determining whether an item or activity meets
• Imagination (forming images and ideas in the mind)
• Synthesis (combining existing ideas/concepts into something new)
Critical and Creative Thinking Process
•Both creative and critical thinking involve the use of
high order thinking skills
•In the creative process one uses:
• creative thinking skills (synthesis and imagination) in the
preparation and verification phases
• critical thinking skills (analysis and evaluation) in the
incubation and illumination phases
Creative vs Critical Thinking
Creative thinking is described as:
• making and communicating connections to think of many possibilities;
• thinking and experiencing in various ways and use different points of view;
• thinking of new and unusual possibilities; and
• giving guidance in generating and selecting alternatives.
Critical thinking is described as:
• analyzing and developing possibilities to compare and contrast many ideas
• improve and refine ideas
• make effective decisions and judgments, and
• provide a sound foundation for effective action.
Convergent and Divergent Thinking
• Ability to arrive at single, most
appropriate and often correct
• Well defined questions
• Emphsis is on speed, accuracy, logic,
recognition of familiar patterns
• Eg: What is an OLED?
• Thought process works by generating
and analysing different solutions for
• Spontaneous and nonlinear thought
• Associated with curiosity, persistence
and openness to risks
• Eg: What do you think colleges will be
like in the year 2100?
Convergent and Divergent Thinking
• Convergent Thinking
Answer 1 Answer 2
• A widely held but false belief or idea that evolved as means to explain
phenomena that were difficult to understand.
• In his book Myths of Creativity:The Truth About How Innovative
Companies and People Generate Great Ideas, David Burkus has
summarized different myths about creativity.
• The Eureka Myth
• The Breed Myth
• The Originality Myth
• The Expert Myth
• The Incentive Myth
• The Lone Creator Myth
• The Brainstorming Myth
• The Cohesive Myth
• The Constraints Myth
• The Mousetrap Myth
• Represents problem solving by an indirect, non-sequential
method using reasoning that is not necessarily obvious
• A process that starts with the generation of new ideas
• There are two main aspects for lateral thinking
• Freeing our thought process from old ideas
• Stimulating the creation of new ideas
• It diverges from the traditional vertical thinking strategies
• It helps in handling problems which has less rigidly defined
• A conclusion is reached by following a series of defined steps
• It is necessary that each step must be correct in itself
• This way, it in itself limits progress to known paths
Differences Between Vertical and Lateral Thinking
• Moves only if a direction to move
• Path dependent
• Discounts some approaches as wrong
• Concentrate on what is relevant
• Rigid categories and classifications
• Moves in order to generate direction
• Can make jumps
• Does not depend on soundness of path
• No approach is wrong
• Welcomes outside intrusion
• Allows fliud classifications
“The Critical and Creative functions of the mind are
so interwoven that neither can be separated from
the other without an essential loss to both.”
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