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Constitutions and political crisis in pakistan (1947-2014)

Constitutional and political crisis in Pakistan (1947-56)
Constitutional and political crisis in Pakistan (1957-72)
Constitutional and political crisis in Pakistan (1973-88)
Constitutional and political crisis in Pakistan (1989-2000)
Constitutional and political crisis in Pakistan(2001-2014)

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Constitutions and political crisis in pakistan (1947-2014)

  1. 1. CONSTITUTIONAL AND POLITICAL CRISIS Constitutional and political crisis in Pakistan (1947-56)  Constitutional and political crisis in Pakistan (1957-72)  Constitutional and political crisis in Pakistan (1973-88)  Constitutional and political crisis in Pakistan (1989-2000)  Constitutional and political crisis in Pakistan(2001-2014)
  2. 2. CONSTITUTIONAL AND POLITICAL CRISIS IN PAKISTAN (1947-56) Constitution: A body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed.
  3. 3. ROLE OF LIAQAT ALI KHAN  Liaqat Ali Khan did the groundbreaking work for the Foreign Policy of Pakistan while taking initiatives towards the formulation of the constitution. He presentedThe Objectives Resolution, a prelude to future constitutions, in the Legislative Assembly
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES RESOLUTION (1949)  Objectives Resolution is one of the most important documents in the constitutional history of Pakistan. It was passed by the first Constituent Assembly on 12th March 1949 under the leadership of Liaquat Ali Khan.
  5. 5. ROLE OF SIR KHAWAJA NAZIM UD DIN (1951-53)  Took office: 17 October 1951 Left office: 17 April 1953 Status: Elected democratically Political Party: Muslim League Total Duration: 01Years 4 months. He was the member of Muslim league.The Bengali Language Movement, a political movement, rose in East Bengal during his term.
  6. 6. ROLE OF MOHAMMAD ALI BOGRA (1953-55)  Took office: 17 April 1953 Left office: 12 August 1955 Status: Elected democratically Political Party: Muslim League Total Duration: 2Years, 2 Months, 26 Days. .He was a member of Muslim league. He introduced a form of constitution, bicameral legislature, known as "Bogra Formula
  7. 7. ROLE OF CHAUDRY MOHAMMAD ALI (1955- 56)  Took office: 17 April 1953 Left office: 12 August 1955 Status: Elected democratically Political Party: Muslim League Total Duration: 2Years, 2 Months, 26 Days Achievements / Major events. He was also from Muslim league. His greatest achievement was the formation of a new constitution for Pakistan
  8. 8. ROLE OF HUSEYN SHAHEED SUHRAWERDY(1956-57)  Took office: 17 April 1953 Left office: 12 August 1955 Status: Elected democratically Political Party: Muslim League Total Duration: 2Years, 2 Months, 26 Days Achievements / Major events. Suhrawardy established the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
  9. 9. CONSTITUTION OF 1956  Constitution of 1956 sought to incorporate the principles of Islam, by naming the country the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and mentioning the sovereignty of God in the preamble, and described a complicated federation, signifying an elaborate relationship between the centre and the provinces and giving a special place to the fundamental rights of the citizens or more commonly known as a ‘bill of rights’. Parliamentary form of government was decided with a unicameral legislature, 300 seats of the National Assembly divided equally between both wings of the state and the members were elected on the basis of adult franchise. Judiciary was to remain independent.
  10. 10. CRITICAL ANALYSIS  Despite the fact that it was adopted after nine years of hard labor, the Constitution was not without its faults.These faults were sidelined at the time of its adoption but they soon resurfaced due to the politically unstable environment.
  12. 12. MARTIAL LAW.. The constitutions were abolished , ministers were dismissed, central and provisional assemblies were dissolved all the political activities were banned.
  13. 13. SIKANDAR MIRZA, 1958 1ST MARTIAL LAW Oct 7 1958 sikander mirza abolished the constitution and declared the martial law in the country ,, this was the first of many military regimes to the Pakistan's history
  14. 14. AYUB KHAN, 1958 He was a field martial. In 1960 he became the president of Pakistan and got the mandate to give Pakistan a constitution of his choice.
  15. 15. CONSTITUTION OF 1962 1. Written constitution 2. Rigid constitution 3. Federal system 4. Presidential form of government 5. Unicameral legislature 6. Powers of president 7. Interact method of election 8. Provisional government 9. Islamic law 10. Fundamental rights 11. Role of judiciary 12. Rights of minorities
  16. 16. 1965 INDO PAK WAR
  18. 18. ZULFIQAR ALI BHUTTO’S MOTO.. Islam is our faith, democracy is our policy, socialism is our economy all powers to the people
  19. 19. 2ND MARTIAL LAW, 1969 BY YAHYA KHAN Ayub khan resigned and handed government over to general yahya khan
  20. 20. GENERAL ELECTIONS 1970 It goes to the credit of yahya khan that the first general elections in the history of Pakistan were held during his regime
  21. 21. RESULTS OF GENERAL ELECTIONS The two major winners were Ppp  AL
  22. 22. SEPERATION OF BENGAL, 1971 Because of the crises of the general elections East Pakistan always complained that they receive less development funds and less attention from the west pakistan
  23. 23. POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL CRISES (1973-1988)  Proposed by: The 1973 constitution has proved to be a great milestone in the history of Pakistan. Z.A Bhutto who was a nationalist and socialist leader of Pakistan, proposed this constitution  Silent features: 1.Parliamentary system. 2.President elected by parliament and provincial assembly. 3.Parliament with 2 houses (upper house called senate and lower house called national assembly).
  24. 24. 4.a federal system. 5.fundamental rights to the nation. 6. Islamic provisions. 7.Urdu declared as national language. 8. independent judiciary and it was also proposed that constitution is rigid.
  25. 25. GOVERNMENTS INVOLVED INTHE GIVEN ERA Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto: (1928-1979) :  He took office in 1971.  Resigned to become prime minister in 1973. Choudhry Fazal Illahi: (1904-1982)  He took office in august 1973.  was a constitutional president.  He left office in September 1978.
  26. 26. M. Zia-ul-haq: (1924-1988)  He took de facto control over the country by leading coup d’état.  He took office in 1977.  GDP growth was the highest in history.  He was the only ruler who died in an office.  Killed in a plane crash.
  27. 27. Ghulam Ishaq khan: (1915-2006)  He took office in august 1988.  He was also elected democratly.  He left office in July 1993. Benazir Bhutto: (1953-2007)  In a male-dominated, Islamic society, she rose to become her slain father's political successor.  Twice getting elected as Prime Minister of Pakistan.  served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan for two non-consecutive terms from 1988 to 1990 and then from 1993 to 1996.
  28. 28. WHAT IS MEANT BY “AMENDMENT”:  The Constitution works as the basic law of a country.  However the Parliament may make amendments in special circumstances if the need arises.  Amendment to the Constitution is therefore considered a democratic parliamentary function.  Constitution has been amended not only by democratically elected parliaments but also by military dictatorships although these amendments were later ratified by the elected parliaments.  It was amended eight times during Bhutto regime.  Later on many amendments were made according to the prevailing situations.  Over all 20 such amendments are made till today.
  29. 29. THE AMENDMENTS MADE. Few of the amendments made are as follows  Defined a Muslim and declared the status of Ahmadis as minority and 'non-Muslim'.  Changed Pakistan's government from a Parliamentary system to a Semi-presidential system by giving the President a number of additional powers  Revision of the reserved seats for women in the National and the provincial assemblies.The bill was withdrawn in 1992.
  30. 30.  Stripped the President of Pakistan of his reserve power to dissolve the National Assembly of Pakistan, and thereby triggering new elections and dismissin  Made changes dealing with the office of the President and the reversal of the effects of theThirteenth Amendment  For Free and Fair Elections
  31. 31. CRITICAL ANALYSIS  From her birth till today Pakistan has seen many ups and downs. It has tasted both democracy as well as marshal law but still it cannot be predicted that which taste was better, because both of these ruling methodologies have some flaws as well as plus points.  The 1973 constitution is the main constitution of the Pakistan which is still in practice.This constitution has undergone many amendments, which were made according to the prevailing situations and needs.
  32. 32. 17 AUGUST 1988: In 17TH AUGUST 1988 GENERAL ZIA was killed in a C-130 plane crash in Bhawalpur, along with five senior Generals and the American Ambassador.
  33. 33. AFTERTHE DEATH OF ZIA, GHULAM ISHAQ KHAN BECAMETHE PRESIDENT.. Ghulam Ishaq Khan appointed Benazir Bhutto as Prime Minister of Pakistan on the condition that she would offer full support to him in the forthcoming presidential elections.
  34. 34. 6TH AUGUST 1990. on August 6, 1990, when the President dissolved the NationalAssembly and Benazir Bhutto was dismissed from power.
  35. 35. 24TH OCT 1990. on October 24, 1990. President Ghulam Ishaq Khan appointed Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi as the caretaker Prime Minister.
  36. 36. AMMENDMENT IN CONSTITUTION.. Constitutional Amendments made by the R. C. O(Revival of Constitution). and the Eighth Amendment, that had given the President a great deal of power..
  37. 37. 1ST NOVEMBER 1990.. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif was elected as Prime Minister on November 1, 1990. Nawaz Sharif's Government remained in power till April 19, 1993.
  38. 38. 18TH JULY 1993. resignation of both President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on July 18, 1993. . The National and Provincial Assemblies were also dissolved. Moin Qureshi was appointed as the caretaker Prime Minister, and Ghulam Ishaq Khan was appointed the caretaker President.
  39. 39. 19TH APRAIL 1993.. Nawaz Sharif's Government remained in power till April 19, 1993. President Ghulam Ishaq Khan again dissolved the National Assembly, exercising his power once again through the Eighth Amendment, and appointed Mir Balakh Sher Khan Mazari as the caretaker Prime Minister
  40. 40. 18TH JULY 1993.. the resignation of both President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on July 18, 1993.
  41. 41. MOIN QURESHI.. Moin Qureshi, a topWorld Bank official, was appointed as the Caretaker Prime Minister and Ghulam Ishaq Khan was appointed as the caretaker President.
  42. 42. 19TH OCT 1993.. . Benazir Bhutto took oath as Prime Minister on October 19, 1993.
  43. 43. 13TH NOV 1993..  . On November 13, 1993, Sardar Farooq Leghari was appointed as the President of Pakistan for a term of five years.
  44. 44. 18 FEB 1997.. Mian Nawaz Sharif was re-elected as Prime Minister. He obtained a vote of confidence from the National Assembly on February 18, 1997.
  46. 46. 7TH OCT 1998  . General Karamat was replaced by General Pervez Musharraf.
  47. 47. 1ST JAN 1998.. Muhammad RafiqTarar, a former Judge of the Supreme Court and a Senator, was elected as the ninth President of Pakistan. He took oath to his office on January 1, 1998.The office of the President had become vacant after the resignation of President Leghari on December 2, 1997
  48. 48. 28TH MAY 1998, On May 28, 1998, Pakistan became a nuclear power when it successfully carried out five nuclear tests at Chaghi, in the province of Baluchistan.
  49. 49. THE KARGIL OFFENSIVE 1999, On May 26, 1999, India resorted to air strikes to drive out the freedom fighters. During this episode, two Indian aircraft entered the territory of Pakistan, one of which was shot down.
  50. 50. 12TH OCT 1999.. Pakistan again came under the military rule, by Pervaiz Musharaff…
  51. 51. PERVEZ MUSHARRAF 20 june 2001 -18 august 2008 status:military dictator duration: 7years,1month and 29 days
  52. 52. BENAZIR BHUTTO MURDER killed on 27 december 2007 at liaqat bagh during the rally by unknown people
  53. 53. MUHAMMAD MIAN SOOMRO 18 august 2008-9 september 2008 status: acting duration:22 days
  54. 54. ASIF ALI ZARDARI 9 september 2008-8 september 2013 status:elected democratically duration:5 years
  55. 55. SALMAN TASEER KILLED on 4 january 2011 in islamabad by:mumtaz qadri status:26th governor of punjab
  57. 57. 19TH AMENDMENT passed on :22 december 2010 changes: appointment for judges of supreme court amendments in number of appointment to parlimentary committee
  59. 59. 17TH AMENDMENT passed on: december 2003 changes in president office and reversal affect of thirteen amendments
  60. 60. MAMNOON HUSSAIN elected on 9th september 2013 status:elected democratically
  61. 61. THE END……… THANKYOU….