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  1. 1. BioinformaticsBioinformatics Tapeshwar Yadav (Lecturer) BMLT, DNHE, M.Sc. Medical Biochemistry
  2. 2. Bioinformatics The combination (or marriage) of biology and information technology. It is a recently developed science using information to understand biological phenomenon. It involves the computational tools and methods used to manage, analyse and manipulate volumes and volumes of biological data.
  3. 3. It may also be regarded as a part of the computational biology Letter is concerned with the application of quantitative analytical techniques in modeling and solving problems in the biological systems.  It is an interdisciplinary approach requiring advanced knowledge of computer mathematics and statistical methods for understanding of biological phenomena at the molecular level.
  4. 4. History of Bioinformatics • It was first introduced in 1990s • It dealt with the management and analysis of the data pertaining to DNA, RNA and protein sequences • It includes many other types of biological data. most important ones are listed below Gene expression profiles Protein structure
  5. 5. Contd… Protein interaction Microarrays (DNA chips) Functional analysis of biomolecules Drug designing
  6. 6. Broad coverage of bioinformatics • Functional genomics: identification of genes and their respective functions • Structural genomics: predictions related to functions of protein • Comparative genomics: understanding the genomes of different species of organisms
  7. 7. Contd… • DNA microarrays: designed to measure the levels of gene expression in different tissues, various stages of development and in different diseases • Medical informatics: involves the management of biomedical data with special references to biomolecules, in vitro assays and clinical trials
  8. 8. Components of bioinformatics 1. Creation of databases: • Involves the organizing, storage and management of the biological data sets • Databases are accessible and submit new entries. Protein sequences data bank for molecular structures
  9. 9. 2. Development of algorithms and statistics: • Involves the development of tools and resources to determine the relationship among the members of large data sets. • Comparisons of protein sequence data with the already existing protein sequences
  10. 10. 3. Analysis of data interpretation: • Includes DNA, RNA and protein sequences, protein structure, gene expression profiles, and biochemical pathways
  11. 11. Bioinformatics and the internet • It is an international computer network • It involves a group of computers that can communicate (usually over telephone system) and exchange data between users. • Internet protocol(Ip) determines how the packets of information are addressed and routed over the network. • To access the internet, computer must have the correct hardware, appropriate software and permission for access to network.
  12. 12. Applications of bioinformatics • Sequence mapping of biomecules(DNA, RNA and proteins) • Identification of nucleotide sequences of functional gene • Finding of sites that can be cut by restriction enzymes • Prediction of functional gene products
  13. 13. Contd… • To trace the evolutionary trees of genes • For the prediction of 3-dimensional structure of proteins • Molecular modelling of biomolecules • Designing of drugs for medical treatment • Handling of vast biological data which otherwise is not possible • Development of models for the functioning various cells, tissue and organs.
  14. 14. • • Thank You

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