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Market research challenges_in_emerging_economies_yan_haas_def.
The situation:Colombia, South America
C THE 1. Case study “Security perception”on 2. Research under difficult security conditionste 3. Methodological challengesnt 4. Research under poor infrastructure 5. Learning: an enriching experience
1. Case study “Security perception”Small towns in “red zones” 2010 2011 - Team of 40 pollsters WAVE I WAVE II WAVE III WAVE IV WAVE I WAVE II Universe Man and women older than 18, SEL1 to 4, “red zone” municipalities Personal 82% 82% 89% 90% 90% 90% Type of poll Telephone 18% 18% 11% 10% 10% 10% Duration 30 min 17 Oct 2010 – 16 Nov 2010 - 14 Dec 2010 - 6 Jan 2011 - 23 Sep 2011 - 22 Oct 2011 - Field work dates 10 Nov 2010 13 Dec 2010 29 Dec 2010 26 Jan 2011 31 Oct 2011 28 Nov 2011 Personal: random neighborhood, block and home selection - block scan Sampling Telephone: random number selection from a list (phone directory) and telephone series Sample 1952 1952 1952 1952 3276 3294 Global ME - % 2,20% 2,20% 2,20% 2,20% 1,71% 1,70% (Confidence level - 95%) Municipalities 34 30 32 30 32 33 Weighting variables Strategic area and department
1 Follow sense of survival ¡! Attention to:Environment abnormalities Latent threats Working schedule or poll area limit Strictly obey to stop the field work when felt unsecure Pollsters Polled ¡! ¡! ¡! ¡! Threats
2 Alternative completion of missing polls Via phone Sample area substitution Pollsters Polled In another municipality with a similar size and belonging to the same geographical area
3 End customer confidentiality The name of the customer Colombian Military was omitted Forces Personnel trained to not to reveal its identity YanHaas S.A Study by YanHaas as a private enterprise independent from government
4 Communication logistics With military units: Pollsters had access to a toll free number to the armed forces: Inform about any abnormal situation Inform the commanding officer of the closest military unit Inform the field coordinators in Bogotá
4 Communication logistics With police When arriving to a municipality: Introduce themselves at the police station to let them know of their presence, stay period and objective Pollsters Police
1 Research planning Methodology: multi stage sampling Standard sampling Small municipalities sampling First stage : Keep personnel together Selection of Town screening way - sample dispersion cartographic block pollsters Second stage : selection of homes pollsters pollsters Municipality Third stage: pollsters selection of home member
1 Research planning Sample design2 010 : Planned 68 municipalities in 4 consecutive waves Executed 68 municipalities in two groups wave 1 and 3 wave 2 and 4 Sampling point reduction: difficult task since normally contractual terms and conditions are mandatory and non modifiable when working with government institutions.
2 Questionnaire design2 010 : Cultural level of target group 70% having ONLY basic elementary education Simplifying the language used
2 Questionnaire design2 010 : Difference between military force and police For population is them. hard to understand the difference between Military Police Polled Remember that MFs are the who Army, Navy or Air Force, wear camouflaged clothes. Police (not camouflaged). Military Police Polled Pollsters
2 Questionnaire design Interviewees identity protection Control Questionnaire document - Registry of names and telephone numbers in a separate document YanHaas S.A Name Telephone - Polled kept confidential and safe in case questionnaires were stolen (Puerto Asís) or lost Special attention to use of adequate wording - Interviewees should not notice through the questions that there is a preconceived positioning of the guerrillas - Use of “distractors” in question formulation - Removal of questions which forced the interviewee to directly take a stand for or against the MF
222 Questionnaire design 011: QuestionnaireValidityTest to prove in what level the questions oriented to acommon objective were coherent Redundancy: reduction of the #Reliability: Cronbach’s Alpha of questions, givingLogic inherent to the given answers for a group of space for a deepervariables exploration on subjects of higher importance to the 97,2%First wave customer
3 Field work Workforce retention Normal conditions Direct contract 3 out of10 interviewers deserted or refused to work on the project Solution Increase the sensation of security for the team introducing themselves at police stations and worked in groups Involve local subcontractors Rethink distribution of teams - each subcontractor worked together with an experienced interviewer from YanHaas
3 Field work Training challenges Project’s Project’s Director Methodology and Special security Director questionnaires considerations• Fill out of two separate documents– questionnaire and personal information document• Instructions were given about acting cautious in front of any abnormal situation• Close work with police and permanent communication strategy
4 Quality control Backcheking Normal conditions “Security perception” Pollsters Polled Direct supervision Backchecking Fear 10 No. % Solution Fill out quality control 100 Backchecking 32,3 First % % 100% sample recontact wave Backchecking 100 38,1 Second % 35 % % wave
Making the report5 Multivariate analysis Variables included 253 first measurement 240 second measurement Wide coverage Interdisciplinary team: sociologists municipalities visited per wave 70 ? Indicators 1. Optimism 2. Security 3. State presence YanHaas 4. Illegal group presence 5. MF image
4. Research under poorinfrastructure conditions
Telephone infrastructure1 Methodology controlled rates2 010 : Mixed methodology Pollsters Polled Pollsters Polled Contractibility problem Solution ¡! 99 extra dialing resulting from each contactable phone 0% and 1% effectiveness number, changing the last two digits in some populations For second wave telephone polls quota was reduced from 13% to 10% Impact $ Expenses increased, decreasing the planned profitability of the project
2 Urbanism UrbanismDibulla- La Guajira Low population level – small municipalities In second wave, houses that had been polled previously were omitted Canton de San Pablo-Chocó Lack of nomenclatureForced pollsters to capture all possiblereference information to locate the house later if necessary
Road infrastructure3 Weather conditions Road landslides Restricted passing Road closings Underwater towns and roads Substitution of sampling points Efficient communication