Más contenido relacionado

Más de Head Department of Botany Govt Degree College Mahabubaba(20)



  1. ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS By Dr.Thirunahari Ugandhar Asst Prof of Botany Govt. Degree College Mahabubabad-506101 (T.S.)
  2. Economical Importance Of Forests Environmental Importance Of Forests Ecological Importance Of Forests Religious Importance Of Forests • Introduction • A forest is a type of ecosystem in which there is high density of trees occupying a relatively large area of land. • An ecosystem is an ecological unit consisting of a biotic community together with it’s a biotic environment.
  3. • In the case of a forest, trees dominate the biotic landscape, although there are also other plants and animals. • There are many types of forest, such as rainforests and temperate hardwood forest. • Forests provide innumerable values to people, provide aspects that address both physical needs as well as the internal nature of people.
  4. FOREST PRESERVATION Environmental activists consider forests as one of the top 5 natural resources on earth. This is rightly so, and today, we shall look at how wonderful our forests are to us, and why we should immediately stop its' destruction. There is more to forests than just a massive collection of trees. It is a natural, complex ecosystem, made up of a wide variety of trees, that support a massive range of life forms. Quiet apart from trees, forests also include the soils that support the trees, the water bodies that run through them and even the atmosphere (air) around them.
  5. • Forests of the world are a natural wonder that humans have sadly taken for granted. • Forests come in many sizes and forms. • For example, the piece of land with huge trees and many animals, birds and water bodies running through it in a part of Kenya can be called a forest. • In the same way, the large belt of thick, evergreen trees running from Peru to Brazil (called the Amazon Rain Forest) is also a forest. • A good example is the Amazon Rain Forest.
  6. • It is estimated that two-thirds of the world's forest is currently distributed among 10 countries: • Forests are hugely important for life on earth. • This is because it serves as an ecosystem, and sustains life for millions of animals, birds and animals that live in the rivers and streams running through these forests. • It also does a lot of good to the atmosphere in climate control, as well as supplying oxygen for human sustenance
  7. • ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE… • Forests have obvious economic significance through the provision of timber and wood. • In addition, non-timber products like rubber, cotton, medicinal products, and food represent significant economic value. • Even more important is fuel wood and fodder, especially in developing nations, where people depend on wood almost entirely for their household energy. • Given the immense economic benefit of forests, the demand for commercial timber and other products is ever increasing. • Already, there are signs of a growing shortage of tropical hardwoods. • This is due to over-harvesting of timber, but also increasing demands from a growing human population, agriculture, mining and water storage.
  8. • •Forests accumulate large amounts of standing biomass, and many are capable of accumulating it at high rates, i.e. they are highly productive. • Such high levels of biomass and tall vertical structures represent large stores of potential energy that can be converted to kinetic energy under the right circumstances. • •Two such conversions of great importance are fires and tree falls, both of which radically alter the biota and the physical environment where they occur. • •Also, in forests of high productivity, the rapid growth of the trees themselves induces biotic and environmental changes, although at a slower rate and lower intensity than relatively instantaneous disturbances such as fires.
  9. • FOREST ECONOMIC THEORY Even –Aged Forest Economic Optimization: Maximize soil expectation value  returns to the land, given price of inputs and outputs and a discount rate. Key results in optimization: •Stand value decreases with distance to mill. •Optimal harvest age increases with distance to mill.
  10. • The classical Faustian model of optimal forest rotation shows in some cases a positive relationship between optimal harvest age and distance to mill. • Because of the complex interaction between land value, distance to mill, and stumpage price. • The same model would prescribe that stands growing on lower quality sites are optimally grown to later ages than stands on high-quality sites. • Also, stands very far from mills have no economic value and are not economically managed and sometimes not even economically harvested.
  11. • The same goes for stands growing on difficult to harvest sites such as steep slopes or wet soils. • We offer one additional comment. • If a stand is close to a mill that consumes large-diameter material only, then there might be an incentive for forest managers to not cut the tree until it reaches larger diameters, since economic value may be maximized this way. • In a sense, the rate of value increase is higher for those stands, meaning that it might be optimal to cut the stand at a later age than one far from such a mill; • but this economic incentive hinges on many factors, including species physical growth rates, the differential between the large diameter and smaller diameter product market prices, and how being close to that mill affects land value.
  12. • 12. THE POLICY ADJUSTMENTS, FOREST MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES CONTINUE TO BE DESTABILIZED BY POLICIES THAT ENCOURAGE: • Inappropriate concession agreements that allow uncontrolled log harvesting beyond sustainable levels; poorly drafted forestry regulations that compromise sustainable forest practices; • lack of enforcement of sound regulations; and excessive incentives to forest product industries resulting in inadequate investment in wood processing capacity
  13. • Land tenure policies that encourage deforestation, particularly tendril rules that assign property rights over public forests to private parties on condition that such lands are `developed' or `improved'. • Such rules have facilitated small farmer expansion into forests, and in some countries have been used by wealthy parties to amass large holdings for speculative reasons. • Absence of national land-use policy that would guide land allocation according to land capability and environment impact considerations, including excisions of forest land for inappropriate alternative usage. • Pricing policies and investment priorities biased in favor of agriculture, and farm policies that favor large farmers over smallholders all of which ultimately retard the demographic transition, make rural populations more dependent on natural forests for subsistence needs, and increase the concentration of agricultural landholdings.
  14. • Pricing policies and investment priorities biased in favor of agriculture, and farm policies • that favor large farmers over smallholders all of which ultimately retard the demographic transition, make rural populations more dependent on natural forests for subsistence needs, and increase the concentration of agricultural landholdings