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Empowerment

  1. 1. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIESSector – 9, DwarkaInstitutional Area, New Delhi-75 Affiliated Institution of G.G.S.IP.U, Delhi ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR (OB) BBA201 EMPOWERMENT PINKI BHARDWAJ ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
  2. 2. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, DwarkaInstitutional Area, New Delhi-75 Empowerment is any process that provides greater autonomy through the sharing of relevant information and the provision of control over factors affecting job performance. In a work organisation, empowerment is the process of enabling employees to set their own work goals, make decisions, and solve problems within their sphere of responsibility and authority. The basic theme of empowerment has emerged from the proponents of total quality management (TQM) which has gained acceptance throughout the world. EMPOWERMENT
  3. 3. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, DwarkaInstitutional Area, New Delhi-75 APPROACHES FOR EMPOWERMENT There are five approaches which has been suggested for empowerment: 1. Helping employees achieve job mastery- giving training, coaching and guided experience that are required for initial success. 2. Allowing more control- giving employees discretion over job performance and making them accountable for performance outcomes. 3. Providing successful role models- allowing them to observe peers who are performing successfully on the job. 4. Using social reinforcement and persuasion- giving praise, encouragement, and verbal feedback to raise confidence. 5. Giving emotional support- reduction of stress and anxiety through better role prescription, task assistance and personal care.
  4. 4. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, DwarkaInstitutional Area, New Delhi-75 CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPOWERED ORGANISATION Organisations with high level of empowerment usually have the following characteristics: 1. Empowered organisations put emphasis on delegation, decentralisation and diffusion of power and information. 2. Their organisational hierarchy is flat instead of series of levels which command and control the one immediately beneath them. 3. They appoint fewer managers with wider responsibilities. The span of management is well above twenty in which a manager’s role shifts from controller to coach and mentor. 4. They set unstructured guidelines so the employees know their decision- making parameters. 5. Their employee-related core value is employee satisfaction. 6. They invest lot of time and effort to ensure that newly recruited employees are able to handle workplace freedom.
  5. 5. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, DwarkaInstitutional Area, New Delhi-75 EMPOWERMENT PROCESS Empowerment is a complex process because of involvement of human beings whose nature itself is quite complex. Being a process, empowerment involves a number of stages, these stages are: 1.Recalling Depowering and Empowering Experiences: Empowerment evolves over the period of time with experience, therefore there is a need for recalling events that show depowering as well as empowering. While events showing empowering are reinforced, events showing depowering need change through empowerment. 2.Discussing Reasons for Depowerment: After identifying the events that show depowerment, it is required to identify the reasons for depowement. Often , the reasons for depowerment lie either in organisational processes or in an employee himself.
  6. 6. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, DwarkaInstitutional Area, New Delhi-75 EMPOWERMENT PROCESS 3. Choosing One Issue/ Problem/ Project to Work on: After identifying the reasons of depowerment, concrete steps have to be taken for overcoming depowerment. At this stage, it is quite possible that there may be several areas in which depowering events happen. Therefore, it is desirable to undertake one issue/problem/project at a time. The best strategy to select an issue is to select that issue first which is easier to tackle. The basic advantage of this strategy is that the organisation gets experience of empowerment action which can be applied in critical issues more effectively. 4. Identifying Potential power Bases: at this stage potential power bases should be identified. Since power is a capacity to influence others, it can be acquired by an individual in different ways, known as power bases. Power bases may be of two types- positional and
  7. 7. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, DwarkaInstitutional Area, New Delhi-75 EMPOWERMENT PROCESS personal with each type having different bases. Positional power emerges from the position one holds in an organisation, it may be of four types: legitimate, reward, coercive and information. Personal power emerges from one’s qualities that are unique, it may be of three types: expert, reference and charismatic. 5. Developing and Implementing Action Plans: after identifying potential power bases, the organisation should initiate development and implementation of action plans for empowerment. Empowerment exercise can be undertaken either on individual basis or team basis. Since there are both individual and organisational bases of power, changes may be required at both these levels.
  8. 8. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, DwarkaInstitutional Area, New Delhi-75 BENEFITS OF EMPOWERMENT Empowerment can be treated as casual variable which affects employee perception of empowerment as intervening variable, which in turn affects job performance as end result variable. Empowerment affects employees in the form of developing self confidence, attaching high value to job, and increased use of their talent. All these result in better performance in terms of faster responses, loyal customers, better quality, lower costs and greater productivity. Thus , empowerment benefits both employees and organisation.
  9. 9. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, DwarkaInstitutional Area, New Delhi-75 BARRIERS TO EMPOWERMENT In an organisation, there are many factors which work against proper empowerment, these are: 1. Incongruent Organisational Culture: If the organisational culture has been developed on authoritarian concept, it works as impediment for effective empowerment. 2. Tight Control Systems: In many organisations, control systems are designed on the premise that “ people cannot be relied upon even in tiny matters”. Such control systems work against the creativity of organisational personnel as well as empowerment. 3. Inadequate Delegation of Authority: Superior managers do not delegate adequate authority to their subordinates. The reason for inadequate delegation of authority may be superiors’ love for authority, fears of subordinates, fear of exposure of faulty working, negative attitudes towards subordinates and authoritative nature of superiors.
  10. 10. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, DwarkaInstitutional Area, New Delhi-75 MAKING EMPOWERMENT EFFECTIVE Thomas and Velthouse have identified four factors in a job which are intrinsically motivating. These are: 1. Impact: when an employee feels that the completion of task will make a difference , such a task has impact on his performance. 2. Competence: when the employee has the ability, skills, and knowledge to perform a task, he feels the sense of competence. 3. Meaningfulness: when the employee feels that the task assigned to him is worthwhile, he develops a sense of meaningfulness in the job. 4. Choice: when the employees feels that he has freedom to make decisions and initiate actions, he experiences the sense of choice.

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