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DISTRIBUTED AND SYNCHRONISED VR MEETING USING CLOUD COMPUTING: Availability and application to a spatial design study

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This slide is presented in CAADRIA2012 (The 17th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia).
Abstract. The mobility of people's activities, and cloud computing technologies are becoming advanced in the modern age of information and globalisation. This study describes the availability of discussing spatial design while sharing a 3-dimensional virtual space with stakeholders in a distributed and synchronised environment. First of all, a townscape design support system based on a cloud computing type VR system is constructed. Next, an experiment of a distributed and synchronised discussion of townscape design is executed with subjects who are specialists in the townscape design field. After the experiment, both qualitative mental evaluation and quantitative evaluation were carried out. The conclusions are as follows: 1. Users who use VR frequently and who use videoconferencing consider that the difference with face-to-face discussion is small. 2. A Moiré pattern may occur in a gradation picture. 3. The availability of distributed and synchronised discussions with cloud computing type VR is high.

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DISTRIBUTED AND SYNCHRONISED VR MEETING USING CLOUD COMPUTING: Availability and application to a spatial design study

  1. 1. CAADRIA2012, Chennai, India DISTRIBUTED AND SYNCHRONISEDVR MEETING USING CLOUD COMPUTING Availability and application to a spatial design study TOMOHIRO FUKUDA, MASAHARU TAGUCHI, AYAKO SHIMIZU, LEI SUNDivision of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Japan
  2. 2. Contents1. Introduction2. Cloud Computing Type VR and Experimentation 1. Cloud Computing Type VR 2. Experimentation3. Overall Evaluation of the Experiment by Subjects 1. Experimental Methodology 2. Result4. Difference in Quality of the VR Image through Internet Transmission 1. Experimental Methodology 2. Result5. Conclusion 2
  3. 3. Contents1. Introduction2. Cloud Computing Type VR and Experimentation 1. Cloud Computing Type VR 2. Experimentation3. Overall Evaluation of the Experiment by Subjects 1. Experimental Methodology 2. Result4. Difference in Quality of the VR Image through Internet Transmission 1. Experimental Methodology 2. Result5. Conclusion 3
  4. 4. 1.1 Motivation 1. Introduction In the spatial design field, a consensus-building process among a variety of stakeholders is required. Since it is necessary to share three-dimensional images to study design in the same-room and at the same time, VR have been developed. Mobility of peoples activities, and cloud computing technologies have become. System developments and design trials of a distributed and asynchronous type are increased. This allows expansion of communication opportunities, without a participant needing to worry about restrictions of space and time. VR capture of Kobe city VR-blog system (SIGraDI2005) 4
  5. 5. 1.2 Aim 1. Introduction However, in communication by text, it can be difficult to take in the nuance and atmosphere of the described contents. Since a meeting involving a conversation can solve this problem, communication and decision-making progress quickly. Therefore, this study investigates the capability of a distributed and synchronised type design meeting which allows stakeholders to participate at different places and at the same time while sharing a 3D virtual space. Time Synchronous Asynchronous Space Face to face Distribution Internet Stakeholder -B 5 Stakeholder -A
  6. 6. 1.3 Previous Study 1. Introduction In a distributed and synchronised environment, research on designs supporting a system for sharing 3D virtual space exists. A system allows designers to be physically immersed in their sketches and physical models, literally inside real-time representations of these, while sharing them remotely with another system of the same sort (Dorta, 2011). The data volume of the content tend to be large. When drawing 3D graphics on a client PC, a client PC with a high spec GPU is required (Gu, 2009). A standard spec PC cannot necessarily be used to participate in a design meeting. To solve this problem, the cloud computing type VR (cloud-VR) is proposed (FORUM8, 2011). • Dorta, T., et al.: 2011, First steps of the augmented design studio, CAADRIA2011, 271–280. • Gu, N., et al.: 2009, Evaluating the use of 3D virtual worlds in collaborative design learning, 13th CAAD Futures Conference, 51–64. • FORUM8: 2011, “VR-Cloud(TM) / Supercomputer cloud service”. Available from: http://www.forum8.co.jp/english/uc-win/ucwin-road-e1.htm#vrcloud 6
  7. 7. Contents1. Introduction2. Cloud Computing Type VR and Experimentation 1. Cloud Computing Type VR 2. Experimentation3. Overall Evaluation of the Experiment by Subjects 1. Experimental Methodology 2. Result4. Difference in Quality of the VR Image through Internet Transmission 1. Experimental Methodology 2. Result5. Conclusion 7
  8. 8. 2. Cloud Computing Type VR and Experimentation2.1 Cloud Computing Type VR  In cloud-VR, contents are transmitted by the video compression method of the H.264 standard.  Commands about viewpoint change, plan changes, etc. of 3D virtual space on a client PC are calculated from VR contents on a cloud-VR server. Then the calculated contents are displayed in real time on the client PC as video, using H.264 standard.  Merits of cloud-VR 1. A highly efficient graphics environment is unnecessary in a client PC. 2. Plural participants can share a viewpoint, alternatives, or the VR setup in synchronisation. 3. The VR application version or 3D contents are unified by the management on the server side. Cloud-VR Server HTTP Cloud-VR Client Creating 3D by Compression by Displaying Video OpenGL H.264 Controller User’s Input 8
  9. 9. 2. Cloud Computing Type VR and Experimentation2.2 Experimentation -1  A townscape design support system based on a cloud-VR is constructed.  Distributed and synchronised type experiment for 30 minutes is executed with specialists in the townscape design field. A designer and a reviewer paired up. RealtimeStatic Animationviewpoint by senario Dynamic view from Alternatives Dynamic walker/air view from selection driver No.0 Present condition Plan No.1 Width=3.5m of Plan No.2 Width=4m ofReviewer’s PC sidewalk sidewalk GUI for interactive operation Internet Designer’s PC Plan No.3 Width=5m of Plan No.4 Width=5m ofCloud VRServer sidewalk sidewalk and pedestrian 9
  10. 10. 2. Cloud Computing Type VR and Experimentation2.2 Experimentation -2  The streets in Shimonoseki-city, Japan are extension of 350 meters, and the width of 15 meters.Shimonoseki (下関) Tokyo(東京) Osaka(大阪) 15m Location Current state Photo Brainstorming Workshop Physical model Decision-making Workshop using VR Future planning-1 VR made by 3D printer 10
  11. 11. 2. Cloud Computing Type VR and Experimentation2.2 Experimentation -3  After the designer presents street design proposals, a reviewer asks and comments operating the cloud-VR.  The lowest spec PC with Intel Pentium M, 480 MB RAM, on-board type VRAM, running Microsoft Windows 2000 is actually used.  As regards the 22 subjects, 6 subjects use a video conferencing system, and 16 did not use one. 17 subjects had used a stand- alone VR before and 5 subjects had not used one. None CPU of Subjects’ PC Use of Skype at Experimentation 11
  12. 12. 2. Cloud Computing Type VR and Experimentation2.4 Demo: Cloud Computing Type VR Internet Osaka, Japan Cloud VR ServerTokyo, Japan Chennai, India12
  13. 13. Contents1. Introduction2. Cloud Computing Type VR and Experimentation 1. Cloud Computing Type VR 2. Experimentation3. Overall Evaluation of the Experiment by Subjects 1. Experimental Methodology 2. Result4. Difference in Quality of the VR Image through Internet Transmission 1. Experimental Methodology 2. Result5. Conclusion 14
  14. 14. 3. Overall Evaluation of the Experiment by Subjects3.1 Experimental Methodology  A questionnaire was implemented after the experiment.  The questionnaire result was scored using a 5-point scale. A Part of Questionnaire (in Japanese) 15
  15. 15. 3. Overall Evaluation of the Experiment by Subjects3.2 Result -1  Influence of latency through internet transmission ▶ Difference by individuals. ▶ Actually, the experiment was carried on, checking mutually VR displayed on the PC of the designer and the reviewer through conversation. 16
  16. 16. 3. Overall Evaluation of the Experiment by Subjects3.2 Result -2  Deterioration of the quality of VR image by internet transmission ▶ Deterioration was small. A score above four points (80%) was obtained from the subjects. ▶ Difference in quality between the image of the stand-alone VR and the cloud-VR is verified quantitatively. 17
  17. 17. 3. Overall Evaluation of the Experiment by Subjects3.2 Result -3  Difference between a face-to-face type meeting and a distributed and synchronised type meeting ▶ Subjects who use a Skype and a VR frequently considered that the difference was small. 18
  18. 18. 3. Overall Evaluation of the Experiment by Subjects3.2 Result -4  Availability for the actual townscape design process ▶ Many think the system can be used in an actual design process. More specialists who work at places distant from main site can participate. When specialists use cloud-VR at a busy time in a meeting, the system can respond also to detailed changes. ▶ On the other hand, differences in the contents of a design may appear due to differences in the color of the display of client PC. Color management is necessary. 19
  19. 19. Contents1. Introduction2. Cloud Computing Type VR and Experimentation 1. Cloud Computing Type VR 2. Experimentation3. Overall Evaluation of the Experiment by Subjects 1. Experimental Methodology 2. Result4. Difference in Quality of the VR Image through Internet Transmission 1. Experimental Methodology 2. Result5. Conclusion 20
  20. 20. 4. Difference in Quality of the VR Image through Internet Transmission4.1 Experimental Methodology -1  Deterioration of the quality of VR through internet transmission was analysed using a spectrum radiation luminance meter, CA- 2000A. 21
  21. 21. 4. Difference in Quality of the VR Image through Internet Transmission4.1 Experimental Methodology -2  To understand reproducibility of neutral colors, three kinds of gradation pictures, from black to red, from black to green, and from black to blue, were also measured. 1. Stand-alone VR <-> Cloud-VR displayed on a local host ▶ No influence by internet transmission. Difference in the drawing process of stand-alone VR and cloud-VR can be grasped. 2. Cloud-VR displayed on a local host <-> Cloud-VR displayed via the Internet ▶ Drawing process is the same. Difference by internet transmission can be grasped. 22
  22. 22. 4. Difference in Quality of the VR Image through Internet Transmission4.2 Result -1 1. Stand-alone VR <-> Cloud-VR displayed on a local host ▶ Average value of the difference was 0.0024. Since ranges of both x and y are 0.0 <= x, y <= 1.0 in a CIE Yxy color system, the residual error of this value was 0.24%. ▶ Since this value is very small, the difference of the drawing process is small. 2. Cloud-VR displayed on a local host <-> Cloud-VR displayed via the Internet ▶ Average value of the difference was 0.0023. The residual error of this value was 0.23%. ▶ Since this value is very small, the difference in the influence according to internet transmission is small. 23
  23. 23. 4. Difference in Quality of the VR Image through Internet Transmission4.2 Result -2  When a gradation picture was displayed by cloud-VR, Moiré striping appeared.  When creating VR for architectural design and urban design, gradation will be used with lighting, sky, etc.. When making or applying VR, it is necessary to pay attention to this. Stand-alone VR Cloud-VR 24
  24. 24. Contents1. Introduction2. Cloud Computing Type VR and Experimentation 1. Cloud Computing Type VR 2. Experimentation3. Overall Evaluation of the Experiment by Subjects 1. Experimental Methodology 2. Result4. Difference in Quality of the VR Image through Internet Transmission 1. Experimental Methodology 2. Result5. Conclusion 25
  25. 25. 4. Conclusion4.1 Conclusion  The feasibility of distributed and synchronised VR meeting using cloud computing is high. It increases the opportunities for specialists in remote places to participate in design meeting.  Those who use video conferencing, and who use VR frequently think that there is little difference from face-to-face meetings. It is important that participants can check the situation of understanding mutually by video conferencing.  The influence of image quality degradation with cloud-VR is found to be small. However, a Moiré pattern may occur in a gradation picture. 26
  26. 26. 4. Conclusion4.2 Future Work  It is necessary through experiments involving meetings of three or more persons, international meetings, etc. to investigate the possibilities for distributed and synchronised VR meetings. 27
  27. 27. Thank you for your attention! E-mail: fukuda@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp Twitter: fukudatweetFacebook: Tomohiro Fukuda Linkedin: Tomohiro Fukuda

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