2. They may not know
about constitution but
may know something
about political parties.
• For ordinary people: Democracy is equal to
institutions in a
• For most people: tend to blame parties for all
that is wrong with democracy. Parties become
identified with social
and political division.
Now the questions are :
Do we need political parties at all?
Why political parties become so
omnipresent in democracies all over the
3. Political Parties
• It is a group of people who come together to contest elections
and hold power in the government.
• They agree on some policies and programs for the society with a
view to promote the collective good.
• A political party tries to convince people that its policies are
better than others’ policies. They try to win elections so that they
can implement their policies.
• Thus, parties reflect fundamental political divisions in a society.
• Parties are about a part of the society and thus involve
• Thus, a party is known by which part it stands for, which policies it
supports and whose interests it upholds
5. 1. Elections
2. Declaration of Policies
3. Moulding Public Opinion
4. To form and run the government
5. the role of opposition
6. Parties play a decisive role in making law
7. Parties provide people access to government
machinery and welfare schemes
6. • It is very difficult to imagine democracy without
political parties, because without political parties every
candidate in the elections will be independent. So no
one will be able to make any promise to people about
any major policy changes.
• The government may be formed, but its life will remain
ever uncertain. Elected representatives will be
accountable to their respective constituencies not for
• Needed some agency to gather different views on
various issues and to present these to the government
7. In Democracy, group of citizens are free to form political party
• All the parties are not serious contenders in the elections.
• Only few are effective to win election and form
Now the question is
How many major or effective
parties are good for a democracy?
8. PARTY EXAMPLE
• Single Party system China
• Bi-Party system USA, UK
• Multiparty system India
• Government formed by various parties coming togetherin coaloition.
• Parties join hand to contest election and to win power i.e. called alliance or a
• India has multi-party Reason the social and geographical diversity
9. 1. National Political Parties
2. Regional Political Parties.
• Democracy all over the world federalism
tend to have two kinds of political parties
Recognised Party: A party which gets registered with the
Election Commission with a unique election symbol and
10. In India
• These exist, operate and function throughout India.
• It should secures at least 6% valid votes at the last
general elections or last Assembly elections in four
states is recognized as a national party.
Country wide exist party: National Parties
11. The Election Commission of
India has recognized the
following Parties as National
Political Parties for the
12. 1. INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (INC)
The party was formed before independence, i.e., in 1885.
It is one of the oldest parties in India.
The party has played a dominated role in Indian politics at the national and
state levels for several decades.
It Emerged as the largest party members in the Lok Sabha elections held in
It is centrist party (neither rightist nor leftist) in its
the party supports new economic reforms but with
a human face
the party has full faith in secularism
the party aims at the welfare of the weaker sections
Ideologies of the Congress
13. 2. BHARATIYA JANATA PARTY(BJP)
Founded in 1980 by reviving the erstwhile the Bharatiya Janata Sangh.
Came to power in 1998 became the leader of NDA
2014 : Largest Party
• the party wants to build a strong and modern India by
drawing inspiration from India’s ancient culture and
• Cultural nationalism (or Hindutva) is an important
element in its conception of Indian nationhood and
• They wants full territorial and political integration of
Jammu and Kashmir with India.
• Uniform civil code for all people living in the country
irrespective of religion.
• Ban on religious conversions.
Ideologies of the BJP
14. 3. BAHUJAN SAMAJ PARTY (BSP)
Formed in 1984 under the leadership of Kanshi Ram
• Seeks to represent and secure power for the
Bahujan Samaj Dalits, adivasi , OBCs and
Inspiration draws from the ideas and
Periyar Ramaswami Naicker
Ideologies of the Bahujan Samaj Party
Its Presence :
• Base in the state of Uttar
• Formed gov.t for several times
by taking support of different
• Presence in M.P, Chhattisgarh,
Uttarakhand, Delhi and Punjab
15. 4. COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDIA (CPI)
• The party believes in Marxism-
Leninism, secularism and democracy,
• Oppose the secessionism and
Formed in 1925
Accept parliamentary democracy as means of promoting the
interest of the working class, farmers and the poor.
1964: Party split became weak
Let to the formation of the CPI (M)
Party significantly presence in the states of Kerala, West Bengal, Punjab, Andhra
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Advocate the coming together of all left parties to built a strong left front.
It secured less than 1 per cent votes and 1 seat in the 2014 Lok Sabha elections.
16. 5. COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDIA-MARXIST- (CPI-M)
The party was formed in 1964
Supported by poor factory workers, farmers, agricultural labourers and
• Enjoys strong support in
West Bengal, Kerala and
• Was power in W.B. without
a break for 34 years.
• The party believes in Marxism- Leninism,
socialism, secularism and democracy,
• Opposes imperialism and communalism.
• Accept democratic election as a useful and
helpful means for securing the objective of
socio economic justice in India.
• Critical of the new economic policies that
allow the free flow of foreign capital and
goods into the country.
• Support UPA government from outside,
without joining the government.
17. 6. NATIONALIST CONGRESS PARTY(NCP)
Formed in 1999 following split in the Congress Party.
Espouses democracy, Gandhian secularism, equity, social
justice and federalism.
• Wants that high offices in
government be confined to the
natural born citizen of the country
• A major party in Maharashtra
• Presence in Meghalaya, Manipur and Assam
• Since 2004: a member of United Progressive
18. The Election Commission has classified some
of the major parties of the country as “State
Some of the parties are:
Rashtriya Janata Party
Have national level political organisation with
units in several states.
20. • Lack of internal democracy
• Dynastic succession
• Money and muscle power
• Lack of meaningful choice the voters
21. 1. Anti-Defection law
MLAs or MPs cannot change their parties after the election.
This was done because many elected representatives were
indulging in defection in order to become ministers for cash
• The Supreme Court passed an order to reduce the
influence of money and criminals.
• it is mandatory for every candidate to file an affidavit
giving details of his property and criminal cases pending
against him/ her.
3. Steps taken by the
The Election Commission passed an order making it
necessary for political parties to hold their organizational
elections and file their income tax returns.
22. • A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of
• It should be made mandatory for political parties to give a
minimum number of tickets, about one-third, to women
candidates. Similarly, there should be a quota for women in
the decision making bodies of the party.
• There should be state funding of elections. The government
should give parties money to support their election
Besides these, many suggestions are made to reform political
parties but not yet been accepted by political parties.
23. Two other ways the political parties can be reformed
1. People can put pressure on political parties. This can be done through
petitions, publicity and agitations.
ordinary citizen, pressure group, movement and media plays an important
Political parties felt importance of reform and become serious about it.
2. Political parties can improve if people who want change can join political
parties. It is difficult to reform politics if ordinary citizens do not take part
in it and simply criticise it from the outside.