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Social Marketing: <br /> The 4 P’s and their application to breastfeeding campaigns<br />
Tutorial Breakdown<br />Brief history of Social Marketing<br />Themes, features, and applications of Social Marketing<br />Cultural Norms and Social Marketing<br />4 P’s (Marketing Mix)<br />Case Studies<br />National WIC Breastfeeding Promotion Plan<br />Loving Support Campaign<br />Be A Star Campaign<br />
Learning Objectives<br />To understand the key themes of social marketing and the potential applications of social marketing techniques within the field of public health.<br />To analyze the “Marketing Mix” and understand the importance of integrating product, price, place, and promotion in order to maximize campaign effectiveness.<br />To evaluate examples of successful breastfeeding campaigns in order to examine the application of the 4 P’s and necessary components of a social marketing campaign.<br />
A little history…<br /><ul><li>Kotler and Levy (1969) first introduced the concept of social marketing</li></ul>They proposed that marketing is a “pervasive, societal activity that goes considerably beyond the selling of toothpaste, soap, and steel”<br />First time that marketing was considered for organizations, persons, and ideals<br />The term “Social Marketing” was officially introduced in 1971<br />
Social Marketing Key Themes<br />Research and Evaluation are the key components<br />The primary focus is on the consumer <br />For social marketing to be an effective strategy, it is critical to learn what people want or need rather than persuading individuals to buy a good<br />Marketing talks TO the consumer, not about the product<br />
Essential Features<br />It is a distinct discipline<br /> within the field of marketing<br />It is for the good of society<br /> as well as the target audience<br />It relies on the principles <br />and techniques developed by <br />commercial marketing<br />
Applications<br />Social marketers typically attempt to encourage their target audience to partake in four types of behavior change<br />Accept a new behavior (e.g., Breastfeeding)<br />Reject a potentially undesirable behavior (e.g., Smoking)<br />Modify a current behavior (e.g., Increased Exercise)<br />Abandon an undesirable behavior (e.g., Drinking and Driving)<br />4 Major areas where social marketing techniques are utilized: Health Promotion, Injury Prevention, Environmental Protection, and Community Mobilization<br />
Social Marketing approaches to influence behavior…<br />Downstream Approach or horizontal perspective- addresses barriers/benefits on the individual level<br />Midstream Approach-attempts to reach individuals who have the ability to influence others in the target community including family members, co-workers, friends and neighbors<br />Upstream Approach- attempts to alter policies, regulations, and laws to influence societal behavior change<br />
Cultural Norms and Social Marketing<br />Social Marketing Campaigns are affected by social, cultural, and regulatory environments <br />Campaigns must take these factors into account in order to maximize effectiveness<br />Formative research (e.g., focus groups, surveys, interviews, etc.) is a necessary component of designing a social marketing campaign<br />
Taking into account social, cultural, and environmental norms…<br />Examples: <br />Anti-hepatitis B campaign in China <br />Anti-HIV/AIDS Case study in Mexico <br />Anti-Dengue Fever campaign in Singapore<br />
4 P’s of Social Marketing<br />“The genus of modern marketing is not the 4 P’s, or audience research, or even exchange, but rather the management paradigm that studies, selects, balances, and manipulates the 4 P’s to achieve behavior change. We keep shortening the marketing mix to the 4 P’s…It is the mix that matters the most.” –Bill Smith, Academy for Educational Development<br />4 P’s- Product, Price, Place, Promotion<br />Must be developed simultaneously or <br /> as a “mix” not as isolated strategies<br />
PRODUCT<br />Concrete physical products, services, practices, AND intangible ideas (most often the case in the field of public health)<br />People must believe that there is a problem, and that the product being offered is a good solution to that problem<br />
PRICE<br />What the consumer must do in order to attain the social marketing product<br />The price of a product an be monetary, involve time and effort, require the consumer to give something up, or involve discomfort or condemnation <br />
PLACE<br />This describes the way that the product reaches the consumer<br />Intangible product: Important to make decisions about the best channels in which to reach consumers<br />Channels can include doctors offices, mass media campaigns, shopping malls….etc.<br />
PROMOTION<br />The use of advertising, public relations, promotions, media advocacy, personal selling, and entertainment channels<br />The focus is on generating and sustaining the demand for the product<br />Promotion channels include television, internet, radio, posters, pamphlets, direct mail, DVD’s, billboards, newspapers, etc…. <br />
Additional “P’s” of Social Marketing<br />Publics- External and Internal groups involved in the social marketing intervention<br />Partnership-Collaboration with other community organizations in order to increase accessibility and demand <br />Policy- Using media advocacy to encourage policy change <br />Pursestrings- Where will you get the money for your program? Who are the stakeholders involved? What information do the stakeholders expect/require?<br />
Social Marketing and Breastfeeding<br />“Normalizing the concept”<br />4 P’s of marketing breastfeeding<br />Product- Breastfeeding <br />Price- emotional, psychological, physical, and social costs of breastfeeding<br />Place- The best area/venue for a media campaign<br />Promotion- how messages should be disseminated to cause change<br />
Case Studies:<br />Examples of effective social marketing campaigns that improved attitude and increased behavior surrounding appropriate breastfeeding practices<br />
National WIC Breastfeeding Promotion Plan<br />Pilot States: Iowa, Arkansas, Nevada, California, New Jersey, West Virginia, Ohio, New York, Mississippi, Chickasaw Indian Tribal Organization<br /><ul><li>Target Audience:Primary target audience: Pregnant Anglo American, African American, Hispanic, and Native American women who were enrolled in the WIC program or were income eligible.
Secondary target audience: mothers, husbands, and boyfriends of pregnant women as well as WIC nutritionists, clerical staff, and prenatal care providers
Tertiary audience: The general public</li></li></ul><li>National WIC Breastfeeding Promotion Plan<br /><ul><li>Objectives: The WIC Breastfeeding Promotion Project was initiated to: 1. Increase the number of breastfeeding women. 2. Increase the average duration of breastfeeding among WIC program participants. 3. Increase the # of referrals to WIC for breastfeeding support and technical assistance. 4. Increase acceptance/support for breastfeeding among public.
Media/Marketing:Television and radio advertisements, billboards, posters, educational pamphlets, information booklets, and staff support kits with resource information and promotional materials.</li></li></ul><li>National WIC Breastfeeding Promotion Project<br />Product<br />Repositioned traditional health beliefs of breastfeeding <br />Familiar bonding from birth<br />Price<br />Identified costs- women doubted breastfeeding ability; embarrassment; conflicts with active lifestyles <br />Counseling program developed<br />
National WIC Breastfeeding Promotion Project<br />Place<br />Focused on reaching the diverse environments in which mothers, their friends, and relatives obtain infant care information<br />Targeted hospital environments and homes<br />Promotion<br />Variety of methods- legislative, policy, and organizational development, media and grassroots advocacy, professional training and education, peer counselor programs, and direct advertising. <br />Developed a campaign message that used emotional appeal, conveyed a positive, congratulatory tone, and was communicated through family spokespersons.<br />
<ul><li>Breastfeeding rates in hospitals went from 57.8% to 65.1% after a year of the programs operation.
Breastfeeding rates at 6 months went from 20.4% to 32.2% after a year of the programs operation.</li></ul>http://www.social-marketing.org/success/cs-nationalwic.html<br />
“Loving Support Campaign”<br />Important aspect of the National WIC Breastfeeding Promotion Campaign was a strong focus on encouraging support for breastfeeding from family members, spouses, and friends <br />Support from the pregnant woman's mother increased from 35.2 percent to 53 percent. <br />Support from the pregnant woman's husband or boyfriend increased from 47.7 percent to 53 percent. <br />Support from the pregnant woman's friends or other relatives increased from 48.8 percent to 51.1 percent. <br />Support from the pregnant woman's prenatal health care provider increased from 62.4 percent to 83.8% and from WIC employees from 81.9 percent to 92.5 percent. <br />
Be A Star Campaign<br />Target population: Young moms throughout Central Lancashire, England<br />Formative research revealed that decisions on breastfeeding were strongly influenced by the attitudes and opinions of peers and family members. <br />Campaign focuses on key influencers in the mom’s lives including their parents, their partners, their friends, and their baby.<br />Objectives: <br />1. Improve peer support for expecting young moms<br />2. Improve understanding and acceptance of breastfeeding within the community.<br />3. Improve association between positive values(pride, confidence, and beauty) and breastfeeding practices<br />
Product: Breastfeeding <br />Price: Costs were identified as negative attitudes and opinions of peers/family members on breastfeeding, lack of support, and lack of understanding<br />Place: Doctors offices, libraries, hospitals, and Sure Start Centers<br />Targeted buses, shopping centers, and other locations where research indicated young moms spent time<br />
Promotion: <br />Leaflets - Hints, tips and advice about breastfeeding<br />The Be A Star Blog-Featuring news articles, advice about breastfeeding, and local support information<br />Local radio and outdoor advertising- In key areas such as in shopping centers or inside buses<br />Newspapers for Dads- Designed specifically for the partners of the target audience<br />Community engagement pack- Developed to encourage local retailers, cafe’s, and community venues to become breastfeeding friendly<br />
Results<br /><ul><li> The ‘stars’ of the campaign are local breastfeeding moms, styled to look like models, celebrities, singers and actresses.
Campaign promotion has spread from 1 primary care trust (local organization providing primary care services) to 15 primary care trusts throughout England
Has improved breastfeeding rates nationwide</li></ul>http://www.beastar.org.uk/archives/46#more-46<br />
Conclusions<br />A key element of social marketing is integration of product, price, place, and promotion and these four components are critical to consider when designing a social marketing campaign. <br />Formative research in order to understand social, cultural, and environmental norms of the target audience is imperative when designing a social marketing campaign to alter behavior.<br />“Normalizing the concept” of breastfeeding is vital in order to improve perceptions of and behaviors surrounding breastfeeding practices<br />
References<br />Andreason, A. R. (1995). Marketing Social Change: Changing behavior to promote health, social development, and the environment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.<br />Bartick, M. (2006). Breastfeeding is normal: An urban breastfeeding advertising campaign inspired by the tobacco industry. Paper presented at the APHA 13th Annual Meeting and Exposition, Boston, MA. <br />Beasley, A., & Amir, L. H. (2007). Infant feeding, poverty and human development. International Breastfeeding Journal, 2, 14.<br />Center for Disease Control (CDC). (2000). Media and Social Marketing. The CDC Guide to Breastfeeding Interventions. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/pdf/BF_guide_6.pdf<br />Cheng, H., Kotler, P., and Lee, N.R. (2009). Social Marketing for Public Health: An Introduction. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.<br />Evan, D. (2010). Social Media Marketing: The Next Generation of Business Engagement. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc.<br />
References, cont.<br />Hammon, B. (2008). Be A Star Campaign. Retrieved from http://www.beastar.org.uk/archives/46#more-46<br />Hausman, B. L. (2008). Women's liberation and the rhetoric of "choice" in infant feeding debates. International Breastfeeding Journal, 3, 10. <br />Kotler, P., and Zaltman, G. (1971). Social Marketing: An approach to planned social change. Journal of Marketing, 35(3), 3-12.<br />Kotler, P., and Levy, S.J. (1969). Broadening the Concept of Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 33(1), 10-15.<br />Lindenberger, L. (2000). Success Stories: National WIC Breastfeeding Promotion Project, Social Marketing Institute. Retrieved from http://www.social-marketing.org/success/cs-nationalwic.html<br />Mattson, M., & Basu, A. (2010). The message development tool: a case for effective operationalization of messaging in social marketing practice. Health Mark Q, 27(3), 275-290. <br />Welford, H. (2008). Breastfeeding gets image overhaul, Society Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/apr/08/healthyoungpeople<br />
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