• The term “Internet of Things” was coined in the late 1990s by entrepreneur
Kevin Ashton in a presentation he made at Procter & Gamble (P&G) in 1999.
• Ashton, who’s one of the founders of the Auto-ID Center at MIT, was part of a
team that discovered how to link objects to the Internet through an RFID tag.
• Linked the idea of RFID in P&G's supply chain to the then-red-hot topic of the
Internet. (RFID + Internet)
• The Internet of Things (IoT) a.k.a Internet of Everything (IoE).
• The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of all the web-enabled devices that
collect, send and act on data they acquire from their surrounding
environments using embedded sensors, processors and communication
5. Technology trends that shapes……IoT
1. Miniaturization of devices
2. Sensor Technology
4. IoT Gateways
5. Cloud Technology.
6. Real Time Analytics (Big Data)
7. Improvements in communication throughput and latency
8. End-user Mobile apps
6. Miniaturization of devices
• The size cost∝ of electronic components for sensing and control
• Moore's Law of doubling transistor density every 2 years is becoming true.
• Just as the size of the chips is getting smaller , the costs become more
• Most technology components such as radio, Wi-Fi, sensors and global
positioning systems (GPS), could see a drop in cost of 15% to 45% from 2010 to
Hence, organizations will see greater savings and opportunities in pursuing
7. Sensors Technology
• IoT sensors are used for optical, ambient light, temperature, pressure, Inertia,
humidity, proximity, gesture, touch and fingerprint sensing applications.
• Some of the following sensors are used :-
1. Pressure Sensor
2. Accelerometer and Gyroscope
3. Temperature sensor
4. Humidity sensor
5. Proximity sensor
6. Touch sensor, etc.
8. Why IPv6…????
• The IPv4 address pool is effectively exhausted.
• IPv6 is the next Internet addressing protocol with approximately
3.4×10^38 unique IPv6 addresses.
• This Protocol will allow every device present on earth with a unique address
for easy identification for seamless integration.
• IPv6 address is represented in eight groups of four hexadecimal digits
Example - 2001:0db8:0a0b:12f0:0000:0000:0000:0001
9. IoT Gateways
• Gateways help to bridge the internal network of sensor nodes with the external
In short, they collect the data from sensor nodes & transmitting it to the
• IoT gateways not only abstract the medium of communication (Wi-Fi / Radio
Technology) but also provide the secure channel required for the transmission of
• Gateways can connect to the IoT devices that communicate via specific
protocols, store and parse the information and then send them over to cloud
servers for processing and analytics.
1.Be Secure (Don’t spill the beans!)
2.Prepare for Intermittent and Dynamic Connectivity Issues. (When networks
become a yo-yo!)
3.Provide a Backup Transmission Medium (Have a plan b!)
10. Cloud Computing
• The data transmitted through gateway is stored & processed securely
within the cloud infrastructure using Big Data analytics engine.
• Cloud computing relies on sharing computing resources rather
than having local servers or storage devices to handle applications.
13. Sensor Layer
• Lowest Abstraction Layer.
• Incorporated to measure physical quantity.
• Interconnects physical and digital world.
• Collects and process the real time information
Example of Sensor Interface:- Xbee Mesh Network, RS-485 to Serial
These are open source interfaces and allows creation of a large
14. Gateway & Network Layer
• Robust and high performance infrastructure.
• Supports the communication requirements for latency, bandwidth and security.
• Allow multiple Organizations to share and use the same network
•Below open source boards like the Raspberry Pi, Beaglebone Black,
Intel Galileo etc. interface with devices on the one hand and the cloud
platform on the other.
15. Management Service Layer
• Capturing of periodic sensor data.
• Data Analytics Extracts relevant information from massive raw data.
• Stream Analytics (Process Real time data)
• Ensure security and privacy of data.
• Three of the most widely used protocols for gateway interfaces, namely HTTP,
MQTT and COAP. Data Analytics Tools
16. Application Layer
• Provides a user interface for using IoT for different applications for various
sectors like Transportation Health Care, Supply chains, Retail, etc.
17. Home (Applications / Automation)
• Security systems, surveillance systems, alarm systems (smoke, motion, gas etc.)
• Energy monitoring systems like lighting, thermostat, home appliances, energy
• Water management systems like motor control, level control, sprinkler system.
• Home entertainment systems like audio, video, projectors, etc.
• Wearable devices like watches for quality living.
• Kids, elders and pets monitoring for safe living.
18. Health Care Applications
• People have already adopted wearable devices to help monitor exercise, sleep
and other health habits.
• Tele Surgery: Enabling the surgeon to perform operations from locations using
Tele Robotics Technology
• Tele Monitoring: Collecting data using IoT and sending data to healthcare
monitoring Agency for diagnosis to keep them informed and provide alerts.
• Clothes with sensing devices. (Ralph Lauren)
• Chronic Disease Mgmt.
• Dosage Alerts
19. Retail / Manufacturing Industry
•Consumers may end up with personalized shopping experiences through data
collected by sensors or cameras.
• IoT for inventory tracking or
• Flow optimization.
• Real time inventory.
• Predictive maintenance.
Example:- The application can be provided by an augmented reality service that
uses cameras to scan RFID tags to determine the availability of inventory on each
level. When the application detects that an inventory level is low or below a
certain threshold, it can automatically inform Manufacturer who will determine
the production of goods.
• Traffic Control Systems.
• Predictive Vehicle Maintenance.
• Delivery companies can track their fleet
using GPS solutions.
• Smart Cars (Tesla).
• Accident Avoidance Detection.
• Emergency Situations (Ambulance /
Nearest Repair Shop).