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Beyond Masks: Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for children and adolescents

Lucie Cluver's (University of Oxford) presentation for the launch of UNICEF Innocenti's #BeyondMasks report on 19 November 2020.

Find out more about the webinar and the report:

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Beyond Masks: Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for children and adolescents

  1. 1. BEYOND MASKS Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for children and adolescents Office of Research-Innocenti BEYOND MASKS Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for children and adolescents Office of Research-Innocenti
  2. 2. Professor Lorraine Sherr Professor Lucie Cluver Professor Mark Tomlinson Dr Priscilla Idele Dr Prerna Banati David Anthony Kathryn Roberts Katharina Haag Xanthe Hunt. Invaluable writing and reviewing contributors from the UKRI GCRF Accelerate Hub: Prof Elleke Boehmer (UK), Sam Bojo Lokkden (South Sudan), Dr Marisa Casale (South Africa), Helena Channon-Wells (UK), Angelique Nicole Chetty (South Africa), Archie Davies (UK), Dr Chris Desmond (South Africa), Dr Karen Devries (UK), Dr Evelyn Gitau, Genevieve Haupt Ronnie (South Africa), Dr Lucas Hertzog Ramos (Brazil), Dr Mona Ibrahim (Sudan), Zimpande Kawanu (South Africa), Dr Anne Khisa (Kenya), Dr Louise Knight (UK), Dr Jamie Lachman (UK), Nontokozo Langwenya (Eswatini), Dr Franziska Meinck (Scotland), Kopano Monaisa (South Africa), Dr Gerry Mshana (Tanzania), Prof Olayinka Omigbodun (Nigeria), Dr Kate Orkin (South Africa), Dr William Rudgard (UK), Dr Yulia Shenderovich (Belarus), Dr Oluwaseyi Somefun (Nigeria), Dr. Heidi Stockl (Germany), Dr Rita Tamanbang (Cameroon), Dr Elona Toska (SA), Prof Cathy Ward (South Africa), Noreen Kudzanai Wini Dari (Zimbabwe), Prof Mark Orkin (South Africa). Primary research with adolescent advisory groups was led by Dr Lesley Gittings, Nokubonga Rayalo, Nosipho Lawrence, Nabeel Petersen, Jenny Chen, Jane Mbithi, Dr Elona Toska, Sally Medley. Special thanks to Sarah Jannat Iqbal, aged 11 (UK), for valuable self-led research. Thanks to Leah de Jager for exceptional design. We would also like to thank the many UNICEF readers, Prof Larry Aber and external reviewers who provided valuable reviews and comments, and whose engagement highlighted the need for future and more detailed reviews of important areas within this report. Thanks to Prof Vikram Patel for thoughts and remarks.
  3. 3. COVID-19 has raised risks for children and adolescents Additional deaths TB, Malaria, HIV, Cancer Increased mental health distress Exposure to Violence Educational losses Increased poverty Family effects
  4. 4. OECD (2020), “Six decades of ODA: insights and outlook in the COVID-19 crisis” Global aid reductions due to COVID economic crisis Constant2018USDbillion 155 150 145 140 135 130 125 Countries peg OAD as a share of GNI at 2019 levels 2018 2019 2020 2021
  5. 5. Fight amongst ourselves for our specific sectors How can we respond? Get strategicArgue for more money for children overall Source: IMF staff estimates. Note: WEO = World Economic Outlook. Data labels use International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country codes. Over the medium term, advanced and emerging market and developing economies will only modestly progress toward the 2020–25 path of economic activity projected before the COVID-19 pandemic. Figure 1.12. GDP Losses: 2019–21 versus 2019–25 (Percent difference between January 2020 WEO Update and October 2020 WEO projections) 0 2 4 6 8 10 1412 0 2 14 12 10 8 6 4 GDPlosses,2019–25 GDP losses, 2019–21 MYS PHL VNM NLD ARG IRN PAK NGA EGY TWN POL THA AUS SAU CAN ESPKOR TUR MEX ITA BRA FRA GBR IDN RUS DEU JPN IND USA CHN January 2020 WEO Update October 2020 WEO Cumulative growth, 2013–18 Subdued medium-term growth prospects imply a severe setback to the projected pace of improvement in average living standards across all country groups. Source: IMF staff estimates. Note: AE = advanced economy; EMDE = emerging market and developing economy; LIC = low-income country; WEO = World Economic Outlook. Figure 1.13. Per Capita GDP: Cumulative Growth, 2019–25 (Percent) 0 5 10 15 20 25 AE EMDE LIC Per Capita GDP: Cumulative Growth, 2019-25 (Percent)
  6. 6. Assimilateevidence from epidemics and the global south Innovateto digital, social distancing, youth innovation Accelerateacross impacts of COVID-19 and SDGs Evaluaterapid, non-invasive, essential
  7. 7. • In-depth scoping reviews (published and grey literature) • Keyword searches and reviews of relevant databases, prioritising randomised trials and high-quality controlled studies or pre-post studies with evidence from: • COVID-19; • prior epidemics: HIV/AIDS, TB, Ebola and Zika; • low-resource settings and contexts of weak service infrastructure • COVID-adapted and digital technologies • Interventions synthesised across reviews for each theme area • Searches of child and adolescent experiences and child-led research within COVID-19 • Primary research (PI Dr Lesley Gittings) with South African adolescents and young adults (25 June-3 August 2020) Assimilate, Innovate
  8. 8. Health and well being
  9. 9. [PHOTO TO BE CHANGED IN LAYOUT VERSION] Violence and conflict
  10. 10. Accelerate, Evaluate
  11. 11. Cluver, Orkin, Toska, Campeau, Webb, Carlqvist, Sherr, (2019) Lancet CAH HIV/AIDS, South Africa Bandiera, Buehren, Goldstein, Rasul, Smurra, (2018) World Bank Ebola, Sierra Leone Contraception Literacy & numeracySexual exploitation School enrolment Unwanted sex Learning time Accelerate, Evaluate Good mental health +33% HIV care retention +22% School progression +34% No high-risk sex +19% No violence perpretration +34% No community violence +20% No abuse +51%
  12. 12. Cash transfers to children’s families Take-home food provision School reopening Social protection Tirivayi, N., Richardson, D., Gavrilovic, M., et al (2020). A rapid review of economic policy and social protection responses to health and economic crises and their effects on children - Lessons for the COVID-19 pandemic response, Innocenti Working Paper World Food Programme and UNICEF joint response to COVID-19
  13. 13. COVID-19 Parenting violence prevention Cameroon: Used tips in workshops presented to fathers in the community Pakistan: National television broadcast Laos: National Government and UNICEF speakers in 5,800 villages for 50% of population Thailand: Government distributed leaflets in Health Promotion hospitals throughout the country Philippines: National Government and UNICEF webinars for over 1500+ families Malawi & Zambia: Blantyre Synod Radio broadcast reaching over 11 million people Jamaica: Shared audio tips on national radio Kyrgyzstan: Cartoon videos on national television reaching over 2 million people South Africa: Reached over 6,8 million people through 50 different community radio stations Zimbabwe: Reached over 1million via national radio stations. Special Olympics: in 130 countries Paraguay: 1 million reached online with the First Lady’s support India: Created phone-call based family mentoring programme based on the parenting tips Sri Lanka, Cameroon India, Montenegro, Philippines & South Africa: Delivered with food packages million people 133 182 29 countries governments
  14. 14. Michelson, Malik…Patel et al. (2020) Lancet CAH guide-how-take-care-yourself-during-stressful-times#header--21961 Psychosocial/mental health support TIP 4: KNOW YOUR ANGER WARNING SIGNS Be aware of makes you upset. There is nothing wrong with feeling UPSET and FRUSTRATED. What counts is how you handle it. TIP 6: BE AWARE OF WHAT MAKES YOU ANGRY Try to think about that triggers this anger at home, for example, my mother always criticizes me if I am sleeping during the day, TIP 5: RESPOND NOT REACT In a conflict, it is natural to react impulsively. Here are some constructive ways to respond: Walk away until you feel calm. Do not talk until you have calmed down. Take a few slow breaths. Try your best to explain how you are feeling. Ask for help if you have tried and cannot calm down or if the other person is not calming down. Say thank you in some way to 2 people that bring light and strength into your life. It could be in person or through a call, SMS, letter, or some other way. If you cannot reach them, you can connect with them in your thoughts by thinking about good memories you have shared together. I cry! I yell! I feel hot! My heart races!
  15. 15. Dreesen, T, Akseer, S, Brossard, M et al (2020) Promising Practices for equitable remote learning. Innocenti research brief. Source: UNICEF COVID-19 Education Response Survey – 127 countries. Percentage of countries using remote learning delivery channels (127 reporting countries) Education Radio 58% TV 75% Digital 73% Home visit 7% Take-home 48%
  16. 16. Making children at the heart of the COVID response Accelerate across SDGs Adaptive & Locally Relevant Open Source & Non-Commercial Scalable & Low-Cost Evidence of Impact