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Kers presentation unido_sustainable_transport_and_mobility_for_cities_workshop_abdool_kamdar_20170330

The United Nations Industrial Development Organization's Low Carbon Transport Project hosted a workshop seminar on sustainable transport and mobility for cities in Durban on the 30th of March 2017. This workshop was presented with the aim of highlighting the benefits of using electrified mobility powered by renewable energy. The objectives of the workshop included: Enlightening members of the sustainable transport fraternity in South Africa; sharing the current policy developments for sustainable transport use and operations; discussing the environmental benefits of including electric vehicles in South Africa’s transportation modal mix; offering insights to the various types of transport modes available and those suitable for city commuting and public services; proposing methods to include green vehicles into local government fleets; discussing the possibilities of converting a fleet to electric drive vehicles through other initiatives; demonstrating macroeconomic factors to better understand how the introduction of electrified transport modes could add value to the economy of the city and South Africa at large.

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Kers presentation unido_sustainable_transport_and_mobility_for_cities_workshop_abdool_kamdar_20170330

  1. 1. Abdool Kamdar Sustainable Transport & Mobility for Cities (Durban 30 March 2017)
  2. 2. What’s up with this global warming stuff? • Why the sudden interest in CO2 and global warming? • What’s it got to do with me? • I didn't cause it. (Did I??) • Why does it matter to me? • Surely it will take forever to make a difference to our lives. • What difference can I make? I mean really? Me? • When did global warming begin?
  3. 3. (NASA Global Climate Change)
  4. 4. (Carbon Countdown, Data from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report 2014)
  5. 5. (Data from Differential climate impacts for policy-relevant limits to global warming: the case of 1.5 ◦C and 2 ◦C)
  6. 6. Why me? How does this affect me? How is this my problem?
  7. 7. We do not inherit the Earth from our Ancestors We borrow it from our children. – Old Indian proverb
  8. 8. How should we respond? How should I respond?
  9. 9. Elon Musk, Bibop Gresta, Dirk Albohn Hyperloop 1200 km/h in a vacuum tunnel powered by solar
  10. 10. Nikola One Hydrogen fuel cell powered zero emissions truck
  11. 11. Lohr Industrie (France) Cristal Fully electric modular semi-autonomous “Road Train”
  12. 12. Isn’t this all too new, too futuristic ?? Are we ready for it?
  13. 13. Electric trucks charging in London (1917)
  14. 14. Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems in road transport vehicles. Is it a viable retrofit option for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions reduction? Abdool Kamdar Sustainable Transport & Mobility for Cities (Durban-March 2017)
  15. 15. KERS 101
  16. 16. KERS 101 What is a Kinetic Energy Recovery System? (Otherwise known as a KERS system)
  17. 17. KERS 101 What is a Kinetic Energy Recovery System? It is a system that absorbs the energy normally wasted in braking a vehicle, and then releases the energy when the vehicle needs to accelerate.
  18. 18. KERS 101 KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEMS In 2009, Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS) rose to prominence due to use into Formula One motor racing. These systems captured and stored braking energy to provide an extra 60 kW of power on demand to the driver. This paved the way for a whole new source of automotive efficiency.
  19. 19. KERS 101 There are a number of different types of KERS systems with the more popular being: • Electric regenerative systems • Hydraulic systems • Pneumatic systems • Flywheel systems
  20. 20. Gyrobus (Switzerland 1950s) 60 km/h, up to 6 km range, 1,5t flywheel speed 3000 rpm Recharge in 2 to 6 minutes depending on charge voltage
  21. 21. Volvo has employed this technology in the “Flybrid” system in the Volvo S60 and claims fuel efficiency improvements of up to 25%.
  22. 22. THE ADGERO SYSTEM Adgero, a start up based in Strasbourg, France, has developed a KERS system for medium and heavy goods vehicles that is based on a YASA motor and Skeleton Ultra Capacitors. This system uses a proprietary control system and is designed as a retrofit package to an existing diesel engine vehicle, or as fitment to a semi-trailer.
  23. 23. THE ADGERO SYSTEM Layout diagram of Adgero KERS system
  25. 25. THE ADGERO SYSTEM Underside of KERS semi trailer
  26. 26. THE ADGERO SYSTEM Iveco 12t urban delivery vehicle
  27. 27. THE ADGERO SYSTEM Layout diagram of Adgero KERS system in IVECO 12 ton rigid truck
  28. 28. THE ADGERO SYSTEM SKELETON ULTRACAPACITOR ENERGY STORAGE MODULE Benefits of Skeleton ultracapacitors: Lifespan of over 1 000 000 charge/discharge cycles Operating temperature range of -40 °C to +70 °C 30% more efficient than batteries 60 times the power density of batteries No harmful chemicals or toxic metals Low maintenance requirements
  30. 30. INITIAL TRIALS Test vehicle: Iveco EUROCARGO 12 ton Urban delivery vehicle Mission Profile: Urban Delivery Route: City centre Tallin, Estonia Adgero KERS system in IVECO 12t rigid truck
  31. 31. RESULTS Energy Storage system data Power of Electric Motor 80kW Size of Ultracapacitor Stack 150 Wh 540 kWs Electrical characteristics of Adgero KERS system in IVECO 12t rigid truck Total time Distance Ave speed Ave speed w/out stops Max Speed Max acceleration Max deceleration s km km/h km/h km/h m/s^2 m/s^2 2281,00 8,97 14,15 20,55 48,75 1,50 -2,23 Results Conventional Diesel Hybrid Savings Regeneration Savings Fuel consumed (L) 3,43 2,88 0,55 0,55 Average consump (L/100km) 38,26 32,16 6,10 6,10 Costs (EUR) 3,63 3,05 0,58 0,58 % fuel savings 15,94% Results of trials in urban delivery cycle for Adgero KERS system in IVECO 12t rigid truck Urban delivery test cycle with full load
  32. 32. RESULTS Adgero KERS system in IVECO 12t rigid truck
  33. 33. RESULTS • The initial trials show a 15,9% improvement in fuel consumption. • The data logs show further potential for energy regeneration through application of a larger Ultracapacitor stack. • Further trials are being conducted in April 2017 with a target fuel efficiency improvement of 20-22%. • The ideal solution would be a compromise between system optimization and economic viability
  34. 34. Return on Investment • The system installed cost at commercialisation (mid 2018) is estimated at GBP 17 000. • The Rate of Exchange GBP/Rand on 25 March 2017 is R15,51/GBP. This is R263 670. • With an estimated 150km a day, fuel consumption is 38.26/100x150 = 57.39 L per day • Annual fuel consumption is 20 947 L. • With a 15.9% fuel consumption saving, this would be a reduction of 3 331 L. • The March 2017 diesel price at the coast is R 11,22 (AA, 2017) • This results in an annual saving of R 37 374 which yields a 14,2 % return on investment. • CO2 reduction would be 8 860 kg per year. • There is potential for further system optimization aimed at a 20% fuel consumption savings. This would improve the annual fuel savings to R 47 005 which would yield a return of 17.8% on the cost of the KERS system. (The 2018 estimated price includes an additional capacitor bank)
  35. 35. NEXT STEPS • Sainsbury and Howden’s in the UK have placed orders for 20 KERS fitments. These units will be built between May 2018 and July 2018 • This project is sponsored in part through a grant by the UK government OLEV • Dr. Marc Stettler from Imperial College (London) is supervising the operational trials and will be monitoring the fuel consumption and emissions performance • Commercial production and sales of the Adgero KERS solution will commence mid 2018
  36. 36. CONCLUSIONS • Ultracapacitor based KERS systems are reaching maturity and are now economically viable. • At current system efficiencies, the fuel savings alone yield a 14,2% return on investment, with potential to reach approx 18%. • Fleet operators may begin to consider KERS systems as a retrofit strategy to reduce GHG emissions in the medium term rather than wait for fleet end-of-life replacement cycles for EV substitution
  37. 37. Continual Improvement Strategies • Some organisations choose to remain the way they are. Static and predictable • Other organisations choose to make incremental improvements to the business • The start up eco-system is dominated by radical innovation • At KDG Logistics we choose parallel strategies of incremental improvement as well as radical innovation • As a result, each year we tweak the specification of our Volvo trucks ( approx 15 new trucks per year), and we look for improvements in tyres, operational performance, etc • This has already achieved a better than 20% improvement in fuel consumption and emissions • We also have a radical innovation program where we are targeting a 38,6% improvement in emissions and fuel economy in 20% of our fleet by end 2018
  38. 38. We do not inherit the Earth from our Ancestors We borrow it from our children. A special thank you to Abdool Kamdar