Group no. 4
1. Asad Abbas (19-CE-114)
2. Ali Rafique (19R-18-CE-83)
3. Sher Ali (19-CE-118)
4. Muntazir Mehdi (19-CE-126)
5. Muhammad Mohsin Ali (19-CE-18)
6. Adeel Rauf Khan (19-CE-122)
7. Muhammad Akram (19-CE-134)
8. Usama Shoukat (19-CE-62)
Ethics in our society
What is ethics?
“Ethics is the word that refers to morals, values
and beliefs of the individuals family or the
It is the;
“Set of beliefs about right or wrong
“It is a branch of philosophy that involves
the systemizing, defending and recommending
concept of right and wrong conduct.”
Ethics in our society:
Ethics and morals play an important
part in the life of a common man. So here are some points
which can be used as a keywords in social ethics.
Codes of conduct
Code of ethics
These are some keyword of ethics.
Codes of conducts:
The code of conduct outlines specific behaviour that are
required to prohibited as a conditions of ongoing employment.
It might forbid sexual harassment, racial intimidation or
viewing inappropriate or unauthorized content on company
There are round about 18 articles who tell us about the
codes of conducts. Also, there is a difference between codes of
conducts and code of ethics.
Codes of ethics:
Code of ethics and professional conduct outlines the ethical principles
that govern decisions and the behavior of the company. There are five code of
ethics which are given below.
Comparison between Codes of ethics and codes of conduct:
Codes of ethics
Codes of ethics generally are wide
ranging and non specific designed to
provide a set of values or decision
making approaches that enable
employees to make independent
judgment about the most appropriate
course of action.
Codes of conducts
Conduct standards generally require
little judgment you obey or incur a
penalty and the code provides a fairly
clear set of expectations about which
actions are required acceptable or
It does this by establishing rules,
principles, and values on which we can base our
The concepts most directly associated with ethics are
truth, honesty, fairness, and equity.
While ethics is a societal concern, it is of
critical importance to the professions that serve society
Ethics is important to every society as it plays a critical
role in shaping the individual behaviors within a
society. Ethics and human conduct are no exception to
• The central ethical dilemma, therefore, in public
health, is to balance respect for individual freedom
and liberty with the responsibility of governments
to provide their citizens with some degree of
protection in relation to health.
• Ethics covers the following dilemmas: “How to
live a good life.”
• Ethics and human conduct are no exception to this
• Some professional organizations may define their ethical
approach in terms of a number of discrete components.
These include Honesty, Trustworthiness, Transparency,
Accountability, Confidentiality, Objectivity, Respect,
Obedience to the law, and Loyalty.
• Professional ethics are principles that govern the behavior
of a person or group in a business environment. Like
values, professional ethics provide rules on how a person
should act towards other people and institutions in such an
• Issues like;
are all causes and effects of poverty.
• The effects of poverty are often interrelated so that one
problem rarely occurs alone.
• Bad sanitation makes one susceptible to diseases, and
hunger and lack of clean water makes one even more
vulnerable to diseases.
• Human rights are norms that aspire to protect all people
everywhere from severe political, legal, and social
• Examples of human rights are the right to freedom of
• The right to a fair trial when charged with a crime
• The right not to be tortured
• The right to education.
• Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and
respected for their own sake, and to be treated
ethically. It is of significance in morality, ethics, law
and politics as an extension of the Enlightenment-era
concepts of inherent, inalienable rights.
• Human dignity refers to the inherent and inalienable
value of every human being which cannot be
destroyed, taken away or measured. It is not
dependent or conditional on anything.
Their dignity does not come from the work they do,
but from the persons they are.
• When two persons have equal status in at least one
normatively relevant respect, they must be treated equally
with regard to this respect. This is the generally accepted
formal equality principle that Aristotle formulated in
reference to Plato: “treat like cases as like”.
• Equality is about ensuring that every individual has an equal
opportunity to make the most of their lives and talents.
Equality recognizes that historically certain groups of people
with protected characteristics such as race, disability, sex and
sexual orientation have experienced discrimination.
• The citizenship, or civic duty, component refers
to ethical obligations, standards of conduct that
establish minimal requirements of ethical citizenship.
• Civic duties include: Playing by the rules, obeying the
law, and paying all taxes. 'Ethical citizenship' is a
• An ethical citizen should be someone who accepts
responsibilities and duties and acts accordingly. The
identification of responsibility may be difficult. The
ability to discharge it may not exist.
• Equity means social justice or fairness; it is
an ethical concept, grounded in principles of
• Equity in health can be and has widely been defined
as the absence of socially unjust or unfair health
• In finance, equity is ownership of assets that may
have debts or other liabilities attached to them.
• Equity is measured for accounting purposes by
subtracting liabilities from the value of an asset.
• Equity can apply to a single asset, such as a car or
house, or to an entire business.
• Justice is a complex ethical principle, with meanings
that range from the fair treatment of individuals to the
equitable allocation of healthcare dollars and resources.
• Justice is a concept of moral right based ethics,
rationality, law, natural law, religion, equity and fairness,
as well as the administration of the law, taking into
account the inalienable and inborn rights of all human
beings and citizens, the right of all people and
individuals to equal protection before the law.
• Social rights include the rights to an adequate
standard of living, affordable housing, food, education,
an equitable health system, and social security based on
respect, not sanctions. There is evidence that they
improve the lives of individuals and communities.
• Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of
freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the
fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of
people or owed to people according to some legal
system, social convention, or ethical theory.
• Social responsibility is an ethical theory in which
individuals are accountable for fulfilling their;
actions of an individual
must benefit the whole of society.
• In this way, there must be a balance between
economic growth and the welfare of society and
• Natural law is a theory in ethics and philosophy that
says that human beings possess intrinsic values that
govern our reasoning and behavior. Natural law maintains
that these rules of right and wrong are inherent in people
and are not created by society or court judges.
• Natural law theory is a legal theory that recognizes law
and morality as deeply connected, if not one and the same.
Morality relates to what is right and wrong and what is
good and bad. Natural law theorists believe that human
laws are defined by morality, and not by an authority
figure, like a king or a government.
• Welfare is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of
a society can meet basic human needs such as food and shelter.
• In a welfare state, the State assumes responsibility for the health, education,
and welfare of society, providing a range of social services such as those
There are a number of moral theories:
• Virtue theory
The four principles approach and Utilitarian think
that the point of morality is to maximize the amount of
happiness that we produce from every action.
• In ordinary political discourse, the “common good”
refers to those facilities whether material, cultural or
institutional that the members of a community provide to
all members in order to fulfill a relational obligation they
all have to care for certain interests that they have in
• Examples of particular common goods or parts of the
common good include an accessible and
affordable public health care system, an effective system
of public safety and security, peace among the nations
of the world, a just legal and political system, an
unpolluted natural environment, and a flourishing
• Guide to Public Debate on Human
Rights and Biomedicine era when
emerging technologies have an
increasing impact on our societies.
• Public debate is necessary for the
betterment of social ethics and also
for the best role of ethics in our
Right to health:
• Everyone has the right to health. The World
Health Organization defines the right to health
as “a complete state of physical, mental and
social well-being, and not merely the absence
of disease or infirmity.” States should ensure
both freedoms and entitlements.
• The right to healthcare is well-established,
encompassing not only the delivery of basic
clinical services but also an environment that
allows good health to flourish. A right can
entail a negative duty, such as not torturing the
person, or a positive duty such as providing
legal representation during a trial.
• Bioethics are concerned with the ethical questions
that arise in the relationships among life;
• Medical ethics
• Theology and philosophy.
• It includes the study of values relating to primary
care and other branches of medicine.
“Ethics also teaches us Kindness”:
• Kindness is also considered a virtue. It is an excellence of character that drives
ethical decisions. People who are kind act that way not for any reward or even
recognition but because it is the right way to behave and the way a person wishes
others would act towards them. It is the essence of The Golden Rule.
• Kind acts include doing favors for others with no expectation of the other
returning the favor. Kind people help others in need. An important aspect of
kindness is random acts of kindness where a good act is done for another at the
spur of the moment. Paying it forward is also a kind act with the hope that those
for whom the act is done will return the favor by doing something kind for
another person. If everyone paid it forward, society would be a lot kinder and we
could bring back civility to society.
• Ethics serve as a guide to moral daily living
and helps us judge whether our behavior can
be justified. Ethics refers to society's sense
of the right way of living our daily lives. It
does this by establishing rules, principles,
and values on which we can base our
• However, there are other types of benefits,
as well. The following list describes various
types of benefits from managing ethics in
Purpose of ethics:
• Another purpose of a code of ethics is to provide guidance and set common
ethical standards to promote consistency in behavior across all levels of
• A code governs the actions and working relationships of board members and top
management with employees and in dealings with other stakeholders.
• Many people are used to reading or hearing of the moral benefits of attention to
• Total Quality Management includes high priority on certain operating values,
e.g., trust among stakeholders, performance, reliability, measurement, and
How ethics useful for society:
• Right thing to do
• Overall benefits of ethics programs
• Ethics programs promote a strong public image
• Ethics programs help avoid criminal acts “of omission” and can lower fines
• Ethics programs are an insurance policy
• Ethics programs support employee growth and meaning
• Ethics programs cultivate strong teamwork and productivity
• Ethics programs help maintain a moral course in turbulent times
How Ethics helps us?
• Ethics programs helps;
Help manage values associated with quality management
Identify preferred values
Ensuring organizational behaviors
Measurement of ethical values
• In this study, ethics is shown to play an important role in moulding one's
behaviour to identify what is right and wrong to do in a society, as it is a belief
and standard that helps to create a harmonious and conforming environment.